The issues of war and peace in Joseph de Maistre’s thought. From the Revolutionary and the Napoleonic Wars to the Restoration
Issue: Issue No. 14 (2010)
Page Range: 9-32
No. of Pages: 24
Keywords: Congress of Vienna, Counter-revolution, French Revolution, Holy Alliance, Napoleonic Wars, propaganda, Restoration, Revolutionary Wars
Summary/Abstract: I have studied Joseph de Maistre’s texts in order to research his views on the issues of war and peace in the era of the Revolution and the Restoration. Maistre (1753-1821) was a conservative, Catholic philosopher, diplomat, and a political refugee. Maistre’s general views on war were complex. He granted war a purifying and chastising function in human society. Maistre was against both the Revolution and the Napoleonic regime, between which he saw no difference. Nevertheless, he was equally consistent in his conviction that the French nation should not be confused with Napoleon, and thus he opposed all the plans of “Carthaginian peace” for France while he supported such peace when it came to the Napoleonic regime. Maistre’s most direct personal contribution to the war consisted of providing intelligence and writing propaganda texts for the cause of the counter-revolution; these activities took place when Maistre was in Switzerland in 1790’s. Probably the most conspicuous feature in Maistre’s propagandist work is its straightforward populism. Furthermore, he saw that the fortunes of war belonged entirely to the realm of Divine Providence and thus they were way beyond human wisdom and science. When the Napoleonic wars were over Maistre was not entirely happy for he was afraid that the victorious great powers would disdain the small powers’ legitimate rights. He found himself disappointed in both of the two most emblematic phenomena of the Restoration era, namely the Congress of Vienna and the Holy Alliance.
Open access on CEEOL: NO
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Issue: Issue No. 23-24 (2015)
Page Range: 16-40
No. of Pages: 25
Keywords: churches, conservation, monuments, museum, Restoration
Summary/Abstract: The aim of this multidisciplinary research paper is to identify and create a unitary updated database of the almost 200 wooden churches from historical Bucovina (region that is currently divided between Romania and Ukraine). One can observe the abandonment of many wooden churches by the authorities, and the fact that they are currently under a real threat of disappearance. The project blends the synthesis of field and archive documentation research made in the last 20 years on the knowledge, historical evolution and status of these wooden monuments that represent the Romanian heritage from Bucovina. Based on the dendrochronological analyses, it was determined that the wooden church from Putna is one of the oldest in Europe. In the open-air museums from Suceava, Cernăuţi and Lvov several representative wooden churches are preserved.
Open access on CEEOL: NOT YET
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