World War II

Mobilizing the European idea at Europe’s eastern frontier. The war propaganda of Romania and Finland as recorded in their bilateral relationship


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 67-75
No. of Pages: 9
Keywords: , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: This paper approaches the Finnish and Romanian propaganda about the meaning of their war against Soviet Unions between 1941 and 1944. Parallels and differnces are found and concepts are discussed in this paper which is based on Romanian and Finnish archival documents.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Philippe Faverjon, Minciunile celui de-al doilea război mondial (Bucureşti: Pro, 2006).


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 133-135
No. of Pages: 3
Keywords: , ,
Summary/Abstract: REVIEW: The title of the work sounds probably too commercial for those who are interested in a more scientific approach on history and suspicious about “the sensational’ and “the novelty” which are present on a daily basis present in the newspapers. But “The lies of the Second World War” is a work which cannot be included into this category. The author has probably tried through its title to enlarge the circle of the readers beyond the smaller world of specialists. On the other hand, we have to admit that the lie always fascinated the human spirit, led empires, shaped societies and explained truths, as a tool of specialists from different fields: philosophers, generals, politicians and ideologists. Jean François Rèvel once said: “First among the forces which lead the world is the lie”. Sun Tsu also argued that: “The whole art of the war is based on cheat”, that is on lie. Politicians from historical times closer to ours thought that lie is a compulsory and not so unrespectable tool. Let’s take Talleyrand: “Word has been given to the people in order to hide their thoughts”. While V. I. Lenin: “To tell the truth is a bourgeois prejudice.”
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Mioara Anton, Propagandă şi război, 1941-1944 (Bucureşti: Tritonic, 2007), 461 pp.


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 143-145
No. of Pages: 3
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: REVIEW.After 1989 the number of the works dedicated to the Second World War grew, but their theme remained in the well known spectrum: the East Campaign, the Romanian-German or Romanian-Soviet relations, the moment 23rd of August, the negotiations for concluding an armistice, the role of the Romanian opposition etc. Mioara Anton takes again the subject of her doctorate thesis, having in view, as she said in the Introduction, the aim of recovering a less known and analyzed part of the war history, namely Romania’s official war propaganda.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Diverging their destinies. Romania, Finland and the September 1944 armistices


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 41-55
No. of Pages: 15
Keywords: , , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: This article investigates comparatively the roads of Romania and Finland to their September 1944 armistices with Soviet Union and their bilateral relations during these dramatic months. It also seeks to compare the two armistices and to explain the slightly different situations in which the two countries found themselves at the end of the war and especially after the armistices. An answer to the question whether the Romanian armistice has influenced in any way the Finnish decision-making for withdrawing from the war is also given.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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The Proclamation of Romania’s Neutrality (September 1939) and its effects on the Romanian-Polish relations


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 115-128
No. of Pages: 14
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: This article approaches the effects of the abrupt diplomatic changes of 1939 upon the relations between two East-Central European mid-sized nations, Poland and Romania, and upon their international behaviour. Allies starting with 1921 but choosing a different foreign policy line in the 1930s, the two countries were deeply affected by the August 1939 German-Soviet Pact which destroyed the European equilibrium. Realist and humanitarian, the Romanian foreign policy opted for neutrality when the German-Polish war broke out, but helped the Polish as much as the rules of neutrality allowed it. Because the Romanian- Polish alliance did not ask for more and Romania could not do more in 1939, this was the best Polish could realistically ask from the Romanian Kingdom.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Romania’s peace feelers (March 1943 – April 1944): views from Helsinki


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 97-110
No. of Pages: 14
Keywords: , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: This paper analyzes the Finnish diplomacy and media have perceived Romania’s attempts to extricate herself from the war on Nazi Germany’s side. The significance of such a research rests with the fact that, as Romania, Finland also envisaged a way to withdraw from war and any Romanian step taken to that effect, as the paper demonstrates, was attentively monitored by Finnish decision-makers. Moreover, according to an agreement the two countries had concluded back in July 1941, they exchanged information about sensitive issues regarding their foreign and security policies and therefore the quality of knowledge of each other’s intentions was valuable. Sometimes, information affecting the most important interests of the other country could be exchanged, as this paper describes.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Allies of the New Europe. Perceptions of Finnish Fascism on Slovakia, Croatia and Estonia, 1941-1944


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 105-122
No. of Pages: 18
Keywords: , , , , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: This article deals with international relations of Finnish Fascism in 1941-1944. It reveals contradictions in their concept of Europe as it focuses on images of other German allies/co-belligerents, namely Croatia, Slovakia and Estonia. As the reports and articles concerning these countries had little to do with reality, they tell more about the Finnish Fascists, their expectations for a European nation and foremost about the European system of international relations. The news from these countries can be divided into three categories. Firstly, the increased productivity under the new governments was emphasized. Secondly, the news stressed the common battle against the Soviet Union paying attention to the armaments or actual soldiers. Thirdly, and related to the previous one, appraisals in public speeches towards Finland were reprinted: Europeans had to respect each other and this respect was gained on the battlefield. Although none of the states could provide a desired old state independence, earlier representations of national spirit were brought forward. Estonia was used as a warning example of perils of Bolshevism due to the Soviet rule there in 1940-1941. The fact that nearly all the news derived from Germany, emphasizes the centralized nature of their Europe. The direct criticism was unsurprisingly avoided in these presentations. This was easy in the cases of distant Slovakia and Croatia but the actual situation in Estonia was more known in Finland and could not be totally ignored. Consequently the news ceased long before the war ended.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Ideological basis of Polish citizens resettlement from the Eastern Borderlands in the years 1944-1946


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 95-118
No. of Pages: 24
Keywords: , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: As an outcome of World War II, Polish borders shifted dramatically. Poland lost the Eastern Borderlands, which had been incorporated into Byelorussian SSR, Lithuanian SSR and Ukrainian SSR. As compensation, the Polish state was granted the area of so-called “Recovered Territories”. In September 1944, agreements of mutual evacuation of citizens were signed between Poland and BSSR, LSSR and USSR governments. To fully understand the phenomenon of repatriations, three important questions should be posed. Firstly, terminology should be reconsidered, especially as the notion of ‘repatriation’ causes numerous problems; it is not clear whether it was an voluntary evacuation or resettlement forced by Soviet authorities. Secondly, the question of the context is to be raised, to what extent repatriation was part of Joseph Stalin’s plan to create monoethnic nation-states in Eastern Europe? Stalin’s program of homonational states and its compatibility with the Marxist-Leninist internationalist ideology is to be evaluated. Finally, the analysis will also include the ideological discourse used by the Polish Communist authorities to justify the loss of the Eastern Borderlands. How did the Polish Workers’ Party explain the necessity of repatriation from lands behind the Curzon Line and how did it use Stalin’s idea of monoethnic state to legitimate its authority in Poland? The study is based on archival documents as well as on recent historiographical works.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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