propaganda

Mobilizing the European idea at Europe’s eastern frontier. The war propaganda of Romania and Finland as recorded in their bilateral relationship


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 67-75
No. of Pages: 9
Keywords: , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: This paper approaches the Finnish and Romanian propaganda about the meaning of their war against Soviet Unions between 1941 and 1944. Parallels and differnces are found and concepts are discussed in this paper which is based on Romanian and Finnish archival documents.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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About the Idea of “Transylvanianism”


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 7-16
No. of Pages: 10
Keywords: , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: After the Paris Peace Conference sanctioned the new political and state realities in Central Europe, Hungary embarked upon a perilous program aimed to “revise” the provisions laid down by the Trianon Peace Treaty (4 June 1920) and to restore the medieval borders of the “St. Stephen’s Crown”. Revisionism came out not only as a foreign policy objective but also as a keynote of the social-political system in inter-war Hungary, active in all state activities, embraced by the quasi-totality of the Hungarian society and which gained precedence over any other commandments or principles, be them moral or whatever. Revisionism grew into a real national obsession which disregarded any critical approach.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Mioara Anton, Propagandă şi război, 1941-1944 (Bucureşti: Tritonic, 2007), 461 pp.


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 143-145
No. of Pages: 3
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: REVIEW.After 1989 the number of the works dedicated to the Second World War grew, but their theme remained in the well known spectrum: the East Campaign, the Romanian-German or Romanian-Soviet relations, the moment 23rd of August, the negotiations for concluding an armistice, the role of the Romanian opposition etc. Mioara Anton takes again the subject of her doctorate thesis, having in view, as she said in the Introduction, the aim of recovering a less known and analyzed part of the war history, namely Romania’s official war propaganda.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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War, diplomacy and propaganda: an introduction


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 5-8
No. of Pages: 4
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: This aim behind this issue of VJHS was to improve our knowledge of the multidimensional relations which have existed between war, diplomacy and propaganda during the 19th to the 21st centuries, i.e. the patterns of change, the depth and breadth of means and aims. The fact that a new look into this topic was necessary is proven by the multifarious approaches of the contributors in terms of methodology, sources and topics. We hope that these goals have been at least partly achieved and that by the articles integrated in our pages will meet some of the expectations of the interested readership.
Open access on CEEOL: YES



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The issues of war and peace in Joseph de Maistre’s thought. From the Revolutionary and the Napoleonic Wars to the Restoration


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 9-32
No. of Pages: 24
Keywords: , , , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: I have studied Joseph de Maistre’s texts in order to research his views on the issues of war and peace in the era of the Revolution and the Restoration. Maistre (1753-1821) was a conservative, Catholic philosopher, diplomat, and a political refugee. Maistre’s general views on war were complex. He granted war a purifying and chastising function in human society. Maistre was against both the Revolution and the Napoleonic regime, between which he saw no difference. Nevertheless, he was equally consistent in his conviction that the French nation should not be confused with Napoleon, and thus he opposed all the plans of “Carthaginian peace” for France while he supported such peace when it came to the Napoleonic regime. Maistre’s most direct personal contribution to the war consisted of providing intelligence and writing propaganda texts for the cause of the counter-revolution; these activities took place when Maistre was in Switzerland in 1790’s. Probably the most conspicuous feature in Maistre’s propagandist work is its straightforward populism. Furthermore, he saw that the fortunes of war belonged entirely to the realm of Divine Providence and thus they were way beyond human wisdom and science. When the Napoleonic wars were over Maistre was not entirely happy for he was afraid that the victorious great powers would disdain the small powers’ legitimate rights. He found himself disappointed in both of the two most emblematic phenomena of the Restoration era, namely the Congress of Vienna and the Holy Alliance.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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The Second World War in the pages of The Overall Bulgaria (1941-1944)


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 123-132
No. of Pages: 10
Keywords: , , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: “The Overall Bulgaria” (Цeлокупна Бaлгариja – Celokupna Bălgarija) newspaper was an informational, socio-political newspaper which the Directorate for National Propaganda of Bulgaria issued in Skopje during the period of 24 May 1941 until 31 August 1944. Designed as a daily newspaper The Overall Bulgaria informed the public in Macedonia of the position on the battle fields and of the successes that Germany and the other countries members of the Axis powers achieved during the Second World War. The newspaper, conforming to the Programme plan of the Directorate for National Propaganda did not differ from the press of the other Axis countries in the way it interpreted the world events. The information of the victories of the German and Axis armies on the fronts worldwide was allocated a central place in the newspaper. The information of the defeats of the same armies were cleverly hidden and concealed, deliberately redirecting the readers’ attention to the great losses the enemies suffered in the Second World War. The news of the great losses which the armies of the Third Reich suffered or instances when their army had broken the international military rights were not obviously published. The fact that selected information was published in the newspaper and the great subjectivity when informing the public make of The Overall Bulgaria an example of the propaganda press issued during wartime.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Cold War propaganda getting started. Soviet rhetoric in the UN Security Council during the Iran Crisis of 1946


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 143-162
No. of Pages: 20
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The need for propaganda becomes more prominent at the time of wars and other crises. During the early Cold War, the United Nations Security Council was an important arena of Great Power politics where the general aims of diplomats was to strengthen the morale of one’s own side, undermine the morale of counterparts, and perhaps above all, have neutral parties support one’s political efforts – or at least prevent them from supporting enemy efforts. The focus here is on Soviet propaganda during the Iran Crisis of 1946, which was the first case the newly constituted Security Council was faced with. When considered on the whole, the Soviet delegates’ speeches were built upon a quite clear-cut narrative plot which followed the composition of the good-versus-evil classic fairy tale. In the creation of this, the choice of methods was rather broad.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Lawfare: The Use of International Law, Diplomacy and Propaganda by the Soviet Union during the Korean War


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 163-188
No. of Pages: 26
Keywords: , , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The Soviet Union proves the perfect case study to demonstrate the use of propaganda as a supplement to political and military objectives. Though not noted for upholding treaties and adhering to rules, the Soviet government was expert at using law to manipulate the international legal system in its favor. This form of lawfare was used to manipulate and exploit the international legal system to supplement military and political objectives to control other states legally, politically and equally as important, through the public media of propaganda. Nowhere was this more apparent than the Korean War. As we see by the rhetoric both at home and abroad, through international political bodies and public propaganda, the Soviet Union worked exhaustively to place the face of the aggressor on the United States. By utilizing both the definition proposed for the state by earlier treaties and that proposed for the individual at Nuremberg, the Soviet Union again and again placed the terms of aggression and aggressive war onto the world stage to undermine the actions of a major opponent, the United States. Phrases such as intervention into the internal affairs of another country, action in disregard of the obligations of the United States to the UN, invasion by armed naval and air forces, and planning, preparing and carrying out hostile acts, were repeated often by the Soviet Union to clearly place the United States in violation of the definition of aggression, even if it was not a strictly legal one.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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History and international propaganda. The case of Bessarabia and Alexandru Boldur


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 279-292
No. of Pages: 14
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The year 1928 brought not only the celebration of 10 years since the Great Union, but also recorded a greater frequency of revisionist actions related to the system adopted after the Treaty of Versailles. Since the Bolshevik instigation in Bessarabia and the intense Hungarian activity in Transylvania and throughout Europe amplified, the Romanian state used the external propaganda in order to convince the decisional political circles of the justness of its arguments in order to maintain the borders as it was decided after the First World War. One of the propaganda tools used by Bucharest was to make good use of history and historians in order to defend the national interests of Romania. Thus, the historian Alexandru Boldur began a partnership with the Press and Information Directorate that helped him to publish books and brochures that supported the Romanian point of view regarding Bessarabia, therefore combating the Soviet standpoint. In addition, Boldur proposed a very bold international investigation in which teachers, lawyers, economists and politicians from several countries were questioned about the Bessarabian issue. This project, outlined very well in its initial form, encountered money matters and, thus, its efficiency was very low. Nevertheless, this case indicates the dilettantism of the Romanian authorities regarding the external propaganda and proved the preeminence of internal political tensions concerning the major national interests of Romania.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Romanian propaganda in Portugal during Victor Cădere’s term of office (1942-1944)


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 91-103
No. of Pages: 13
Keywords: , , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: Although a small country, Portugal came to occupy during World War II a central place on the great powers’ agenda. This was a result of both the country’s strictly neutral position during the war and of its geostrategic position. If during the interwar period Romanian diplomacy showed little interest in Portugal, this changed dramatically with the outbreak of the war. Romania’s involvement in the Iberian country overlapped the great powers’ interest. Portugal was regarded as a fertile ground for conducting espionage operations, spreading propaganda, handling negotiations and signing economic agreements. The Romanian government showed also an interest in obtaining information on the government and public opinion’s orientation, and the impact of the Anglo-American and German actions on Portuguese neutrality. Victor Cădere assumed the office of minister plenipotentiary and envoy extraordinary of Romania in Portugal at the beginning of January 1942, replacing Dimitrie Jurascu. His appointment does not seem hazardous, grounded as it was on the important role the diplomat was called to play as an intermediary between the Romanian, and the British and the American governments and as a supervisor of the cultural and economic approach between Romania and Portugal, on the other hand. Benefitting from the assistance of outstanding cultural personalities such as Mircea Eliade, and of other dedicated members of the legation, the envoy succeeded in promoting the Romanian culture in Portugal and in emphasizing its role within Central and Eastern Europe.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Ambassadeurs en pays étranger : la place des lecteurs dans la diplomatie culturelle franco-roumaine (années 1960 et 1970)


Language: French
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 169-185
No. of Pages: 17
Keywords: , , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: After a halt determined by the implementation of communism, French-Romanian relations started to regain impetus. Despite being members of two ideologically opposite camps, France and Romania sustain the development of their bilateral exchanges. This is why cultural relations grow and diversify. Language lectureships are created both in France and Romania. Beyond their official purpose, language teaching, lecturers and lectureships play an important role as information relays and even cultural ambassadors. Archival documents from the French and Romanian Ministries of Foreign Affairs, Romanian universities (Iasi and Bucharest) and oral interviews were used for studying lecturers’ actions during the ‘60 and ’70. They allow and ensure contact, better knowledge, and understanding between citizens East and West of the Iron Curtain. French students discover Romania, its language, its culture, its traditions, while Romanians manage to maintain a connection with the French civilizations and, through it, with the western civilization. In this article I argue that despite all the controls carried out by the Romanian authorities, there were exchanges between French and Romanians, proving that the Iron Curtain was permeable. This study also illustrates the complexity of East-West cultural relations during the Cold War.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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