peace

Romania’s policy towards the Kellogg-Briand Pact


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 89-96
No. of Pages: 8
Keywords: , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: This article aims to present the steps that European diplomacy has undertaken towards signing the Kellogg-Briand Pact and the position of Romania to the signing of the Pact. It emphasizes the role played by Romania, through its diplomats, in designing the Pact that made war of aggression illegal. The Kellogg-Briand Pact sprang from the desire of building a collective security system, but worldwide, marking a critical moment in drive towards peaceful diplomacy. The article emphasizes that the nations which took the initiative of signing the treaty of renunciation of war for the regulation of disputes between states were not as interested in its principles as the small and medium states, Romania included. It also shows that at the origin of the Pact of Paris stood divergent interests, each of the signatory state following their own purposes. Romania’s representative to Geneva and then foreign minister, Nicolae Titulescu, defined quite clearly Romania’s interest in signing this pact, understanding both its advantages and limitations. Being one of the states that had acceded to this Pact from the desire to ensure security and maintain world peace, Romania has reserved, however, the right of self-defense of national territory in case of unprovoked aggression. The article concludes that the lack of requirements to defend the peace against aggression made that the pact remain only a declaratory document.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Shared Culture, Peace and Bridging: Western Influences on the Dissident Idea of Central Europe in the Communist States during the 1980s


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 215-232
No. of Pages: 18
Keywords: , , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The debate on the idea of Central Europe that emerged within the dissident intellectual circles from Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland has been vastly discussed from a historical, political, sociological, or economical perspective. This paper suggests and analysis on how different themes used by intellectuals from the Federal Republic of Germany and Austria have penetrated the Central European dissident ideas and have contributed to the appearance of a specific manner of thought. We argue here that the ideas of Central Europe emerging from West-Germany and Austria have been extremely influential on the dissident intellectuals from the Communist states and have given them an efficient tool to challenge the official political system. We will focus our study on specific themes that derive from literary, biographic, or essayistic works that are relevant to our discussion, as well as secondary literature on this subject.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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The Culture of War. From the Sources of War to the Concept of War


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 6-24
No. of Pages: 19
Keywords: , , , , , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The incentive for this paper is the lack of a clear distinction between war and crime. This implies that a profound theoretically defined concept of war is necessary in order for war to be definitely differed from crime. The author maintains that the culture of war is necessary way to separate the war from crime. In order to associate culture to war, one is supposed to find out a denominator which they share in common. The common denominator of culture and politics (security, war etc.) is land/territory/soil. An etymological analysis is provided in order to support the premise. Culture etymologically means the cultivation of land. Politics, originally meaning the ‘wall’, is the fencing and distribution of land, and therefore the struggle for land. This implies that politics (including war) is just a special form of culture. The war is to be cultivated in order to prevent its deviation into a crime. Paper provides the historical account of culture of land distribution. The account includes the cases of ancient Greece’s deme, ancient Rome’s ager publicus, Byzantine’s pronia system, Ottomans’ timar system, etc. The author starts his analysis of the war with the sources of war: conflict relationship, aggressiveness and security. The culture of war asserts to begin from the sources of war. This view finds strong support in Aristotle’s concept of the virtue of courage which is defined by fear. The novelty of this paper is the author’s concept of the culture of fear which is to replace currently ruling culture of unlimited courage as the cause of crime. The culture of fear is the most appropriate device thwarting the deviation of war into a crime. Article concludes with the concept of war, also relied on Aristotle’s view, which is defined by its purpose – peace.
Open access on CEEOL: NOT YET



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