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The Turkish perception on the Black Sea Region: A Historical Analysis


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 67-83
No. of Pages: 16
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: Turkey has been playing her “strategic location” card starting with the Cold War years after the Second World War. Over 50 years of time, Turkey has emphasized the importance of her role as a buffer zone between the Communist world and the “free” world. However, the end of the Cold War forced the country to change her policies towards the neighbors and the regional developments due to not only the enlargement policies of NATO but also the European Union. Here in this paper, the aim is to analyze the process that the Turkish foreign policy has gone through starting from the end of the Second World War up to the 21st century. The first part of the paper concentrates on the years after the Second World War up to the collapse of the Berlin Wall, then the paper is dealing with the developments after the 1990 including the establishment of the BSEC and other international organizations, process that took place between 1990 and 2000. After the attacks on September 11, 2001 the attention given to the region has increased dramatically due to the increased rhetoric on the new security threats and the realization of the interconnectedness between the global security and regional security. Therefore the paper is focusing on the period after the 2000 up to the year 2007 in a separate section with a special emphasis on the EU enlargement and the accession of Turkey. Besides, both the bilateral and the multilateral agreements in the region had the aim of integrating the regional countries to the “European” and “western” systems, either be they the EU or the NATO. Turkey has not been an exception in this equation, meaning that Turkey’s policies towards the regional countries aimed at approximating and integrating, in the long run, the region to the EU mainly and in return played the strategic location card again as she did in the Cold War years. Therefore, the paper will conclude with a section focusing on the intertwined relations between Turkey’s adventure to become an EU member state and her policies towards the Black Sea Region.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Managing Systemic Convergence. American Multilateral Bridge Building in Europe during the 1960s and Early 1970s


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 135-168
No. of Pages: 34
Keywords: , , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: Scholars have usually seen American bridge building policies in a bilateral context applied towards Eastern Europe. Equally, the discussion of modernization theories confines it to the Third World or a non-European context. The author shows that the bridge building policies pursued by the Johnson Administration had a strong multilateral and method driven dimension that led to the establishment of the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA). Rooted in national security calculations, multilateral bridge building was closely connected with the social discourse on modernization and social convergence during the 1960s and 1970s. The negotiation process revealed that the American way of modernization was not endorsed by the Europeans, and thus needed bridge building also in West Europe. By applying Peter Haas’ epistemic community theory framework in the context of Benedict Anderson’s ideas on nations as imagined communities, the author asks if the failures of overcoming the Cold War in the 1960s and 1970s can be interpreted as an American overextension of both epistemic and national limits. To grasp the historical background for IIASA the analysis includes other involved multilateral organizations, the OECD, ECE and NATO.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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