Lithuania

The attitude of Latvia towards the Vilnius question in the Twenties and Thirties of the 20th century


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 51-57
No. of Pages: 7
Keywords: , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The problem of the state affiliation of Vilnius and Vilnius region during the period between the World War I and World War II was the main reason causing discordance between Lithuania and Poland and not allowing these neighbouring states to develop normal relations. This problem resulted not only in poor relations between the above mentioned states, but became one of the primary reasons for not creating any defensive alliance of the Baltic countries (as well as Finland and Poland) which could radically change the development of consecutive events in this region at the end of the 1930s and 1940. In comparison with other possible members of the Alliance of the Baltic States, Latvia’s attitude expressed towards the conflict between Poland and Lithuania differed to a great extent. To a certain extent it could be explained by the fact that Latvia bordered both with Lithuania and Poland. It was a highly complicated task, taking into account that maintaining good-neighbourly relations with Lithuania and Poland was one of the main objectives set by the Latvian diplomacy.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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The Underground Cooperation between Soviet Lithuania and the West in 1972–1990: A Case Study on The Chronicle of the Catholic Church in Lithuania


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 89-107
No. of Pages: 19
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: World War II was followed by the second occupation of the Baltic States which lasted until the end of the Cold War. The repressive and atheistic policy towards the Catholic Church, priests, and believers pursued by the Soviet authorities during the occupation of Lithuania was especially harsh. Forms and means of its manifestations were close down of Catholic churches, priest seminaries, and monasteries, persecution and penalization of priests for the pastoral care and catechesis of children, restrictions on the admission of students to Kaunas Interdiocesan Priest Seminary, ban on the publication of religious materials and their strict censorship, and discrimination of believers’ rights. This situation motivated Lithuanian citizens to oppose the regime by means of various legal and illegal forms of resistance, among them publication of underground religious press. The article which is based on the method of case study, applied to the analysis of the publication, distribution, and dissemination of an underground Catholic journal The Chronicle of the Catholic Church in Lithuania in the East and in the West during the Cold War, will help answer three major questions. First, what were the key reasons underlying the birth of the underground religious press including The Chronicle of the Catholic Church in Lithuania? What internal and external factors were accountable for the formation of strong and well-organized underground Catholic press in Soviet Lithuania? Second, what essential information was covered in the journal? Third, how was the publication and distribution of the said illicit journal organised in the Soviet Socialist Republic of Lithuania, the Soviet Union, and the Western countries? Why its dissemination in the West was listed among the key objectives of The Chronicle of the Catholic Church in Lithuania?
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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