Finland

Windows to Horthy’s Hungary. Hungary’s Political Image in Finnish Literature of the Interwar Period


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 7-23
No. of Pages: 17
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The paper describes the image of interwar Hungary in the Finnish literature. The kinship of the two countries and the territorial losses which Hungary had experienced after World War I have inspired many Finnish authors writing about Hungary.
Open access on CEEOL: YES



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The propagation of the European ideas. The literature and the birth of the Finnish nation in the first half of the 19th century


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 23-35
No. of Pages: 13
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: Maybe Finland is the clearest example that nations are not born. People have the same nationality only and only if they share the same culture, especially if they recognize one another as belonging to the same community, to the same nation. This article approaches the way in which an idea spreads through literature to the people, contributing to the “birth” of the Finnish nation.
Open access on CEEOL: YES



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Mobilizing the European idea at Europe’s eastern frontier. The war propaganda of Romania and Finland as recorded in their bilateral relationship


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 67-75
No. of Pages: 9
Keywords: , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: This paper approaches the Finnish and Romanian propaganda about the meaning of their war against Soviet Unions between 1941 and 1944. Parallels and differnces are found and concepts are discussed in this paper which is based on Romanian and Finnish archival documents.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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An untold story: The Romanian-Finnish diplomatic bonds (1923-1939)


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 93-110
No. of Pages: 18
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The Romanian-Finnish interwar diplomatic relations tell the story of aims, projects, and some achievements but also of failures and short-sightedness. This was partly a reflection of the belief that decisive in a smaller state’s visions’ coming to life rested in its capacity to influence the chancelleries of the greater powers. Consequently, both Finland and Romania encouraged a foreign policy more active on the east-west than on the north-south axis. The fact that the two countries, regardless their geographic and cultural distance, shared the unenviable experience of neighbouring Soviet Russia upset from time to time, especially when instability prevailed in the region, this pattern. Some diplomats also played a role in influencing the development of the relationship between the two states. This paper elaborates on the role of interests and diplomats in the ups and downs of the Romanian-Finnish diplomatic relations after the Romanian and Finnish legations to Helsinki and Bucharest were closed in 1922-1923.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Bridge building between far-off European nations: Romania and Finland duringthe 20th century


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 7-15
No. of Pages: 9
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The acquiring of the independence of the Finnish state and the aggrandizement of Romania (1917-1918) are part of the same process of nation and state-building which occurred during the last phase of the World War I when some of the main belligerents were weakened by the war and gradually capitulated while others emerged from the conflagration as winning powers. The previous nation-building process has also many parallels occurring predominantly over the latter half of the 19th century.
Although shaping their main cultural and domestic political patterns in a fairly different milieu, the fact remains that the two nations will soon find themselves caught in the middle of the same tussle of military giants that has characterized the World War II. The two countries reacted by trying to use to their best advantage this hopeless international environment, experiencing also a re-discovery of each other as two nations trashed to the history garbage by Hitler and Stalin, then to be resuscitated against each other by each of the two tyrants.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Poland, Finland and Romania. Cooperation and Parallelisms up to 1920’s


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 17-26
No. of Pages: 10
Keywords: , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The area situated between Finland and Romania cooperation among nations emerged already during the Middle Ages. The bonds strengthened during the Modern Age, although for most of the time only bilateral Finnish – Polish or Polish – Romanian cooperation existed. Nevertheless, during the interbellum Finnish – Polish – Romanian parallels and tripartite cooperation also started to be manifest, which is the focus of this article.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Two Victims for one Goal. Romania and Finland in British Policy in Autumn 1939


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 27-39
No. of Pages: 13
Keywords: , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: As soon as the war had broken, Great Britain priorities and actions changed. Great Britain was in conflict with Germany in an era of total war and these reasons made London refuse the transformation of the Soviet Union into a new opponent and obviously into an outspoken ally of Hitler’s Germany, even at the risk of scarifying Romania and Finland. This article analyses the reasons behind British policy regarding these states at the end of 1939.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Diverging their destinies. Romania, Finland and the September 1944 armistices


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 41-55
No. of Pages: 15
Keywords: , , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: This article investigates comparatively the roads of Romania and Finland to their September 1944 armistices with Soviet Union and their bilateral relations during these dramatic months. It also seeks to compare the two armistices and to explain the slightly different situations in which the two countries found themselves at the end of the war and especially after the armistices. An answer to the question whether the Romanian armistice has influenced in any way the Finnish decision-making for withdrawing from the war is also given.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Reshaping foreign policy. Romania and Finland’s cases in the context of the CSCE’s opening. A comparative analysis


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 57-74
No. of Pages: 18
Keywords: , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: In the 1960s the West-East relations entered on the road of relaxation and détente. This is the context that permitted the organizing and opening of the CSCE. This is also the context that witnessed the foreign policy reorientation in Finland and Romania, later in Finland, earlier in Romania. Finland’s attitude towards the idea of opening a European security conference changed in time, while Romania had a clear position in supporting the CSCE quite from the beginning. This paper will summarize, comparatively, Romania and Finland’s doctrines of foreign policy for the period 1964-1973, interested in identifying and analyzing the foreign policy doctrines of Romania and Finland in the context of the CSCE preparation, the main question of the study being “what is the relations between Romania and Finland’s foreign policy doctrines and the opening of the CSCE”.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Finland in the World History of Intelligence and Espionage


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 87-98
No. of Pages: 10
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: This article approaches the role of Finland in the fascinating world of espionage and intelligence of the 20th century. The importance of this country as a “black market” of intelligence during the inter-war period, the World War II and the Cold War is investigated in the light of the published literature and archival documents. During the Cold War, Finland exceeded her overall international importance in regard to intelligence and espionage, famous world secret services being very active in this country, such as the KGB, CIA, STASI, to quote only a few. Gradually, Finland is coming to terms with this concealed part of her history.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Neagu Udroiu, Zăpezi din miazănoapte. Ambasador în Finlanda (Bucureşti: Niculescu, 2007), 846 pp.


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 99-100
No. of Pages: 2
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: It is rare that a historian has the chance to have in his hands a document of such value for his research. It took decades to get Raoul Bossy, Notti Constantinide and George Duca’s diaries or testimonies published. And many other former Romanian diplomats had not the time or the opportunity to record or publish their vision about a part of Europe which is still mysterious to many Romanians. In Ambassador Neagu Udroiu’s case, his testimony is not only a treasure of information, but it is also fascinating and overwhelming. And this is not only because of its size of 846 pages. It is fascinating for the rare qualities of narrator of the author and for the profound knowledge of the North which emanates from the whole book. It is overwhelming because it provides the historian with the rare opportunity to find out what is beyond the material factors of history, it discloses thoughts, believes, assumptions, perceptions, feelings… By doing so, it grants the analyst the chance to more roundly assess what stays behind certain decisions of foreign policy, the more so as the brief diplomatic reports of nowadays are not comparable with the value and size of their interwar or World War II counterparts.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Raoul V. Bossy, Mărturii finlandeze şi alte scrieri nordice despre români, ed. Silviu Miloiu (Târgovişte: Valahia University Press, 2008)


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 101-103
No. of Pages: 3
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: This book represents a new version of Raoul Bossy’s pioneering work Finnish testimonies about the Romanians published in 1937, to which two other testimonies are added. The book is structured in 159 pages, where one finds aspects of the Romanian history and society of the 19th century, written by Finnish officers who had taken part within the Russian army in innumerable wars against the Ottoman Empire, many of them carried on the Romanian territory.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Alexandru Popescu and others, Confluenţe româno-finlandeze. Trei secole de contacte, 85 de ani de relaţii diplomatice


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 105-106
No. of Pages: 2
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The years following the disruption of the Iron Curtain and the reunification of Europe have been propitious for investigating and sorting out the commonalities of the European nations, especially of those which for so long have been virtually separated from each other. This is also the case of Finland and Romania, countries which have continued a certain degree of relations at state level but very little at lower levels. This window of opportunity has provided also the study of the Finnish – Romanian relations with the tools for more thoroughly study of their past. Within this frame I would set the publication of the volume dedicated to the Finnish – Romanian confluences.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Introduction


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 5-6
No. of Pages: 2
Keywords: , , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The introduction presents the two parts of this issue: the first half is dedicated to the Communist regimes’ history and especially to their debacle and consequences and the second half approaches Romania’s position in the international relations in the first half of the 20th century.
Open access on CEEOL: YES



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Romania’s peace feelers (March 1943 – April 1944): views from Helsinki


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 97-110
No. of Pages: 14
Keywords: , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: This paper analyzes the Finnish diplomacy and media have perceived Romania’s attempts to extricate herself from the war on Nazi Germany’s side. The significance of such a research rests with the fact that, as Romania, Finland also envisaged a way to withdraw from war and any Romanian step taken to that effect, as the paper demonstrates, was attentively monitored by Finnish decision-makers. Moreover, according to an agreement the two countries had concluded back in July 1941, they exchanged information about sensitive issues regarding their foreign and security policies and therefore the quality of knowledge of each other’s intentions was valuable. Sometimes, information affecting the most important interests of the other country could be exchanged, as this paper describes.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Allies of the New Europe. Perceptions of Finnish Fascism on Slovakia, Croatia and Estonia, 1941-1944


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 105-122
No. of Pages: 18
Keywords: , , , , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: This article deals with international relations of Finnish Fascism in 1941-1944. It reveals contradictions in their concept of Europe as it focuses on images of other German allies/co-belligerents, namely Croatia, Slovakia and Estonia. As the reports and articles concerning these countries had little to do with reality, they tell more about the Finnish Fascists, their expectations for a European nation and foremost about the European system of international relations. The news from these countries can be divided into three categories. Firstly, the increased productivity under the new governments was emphasized. Secondly, the news stressed the common battle against the Soviet Union paying attention to the armaments or actual soldiers. Thirdly, and related to the previous one, appraisals in public speeches towards Finland were reprinted: Europeans had to respect each other and this respect was gained on the battlefield. Although none of the states could provide a desired old state independence, earlier representations of national spirit were brought forward. Estonia was used as a warning example of perils of Bolshevism due to the Soviet rule there in 1940-1941. The fact that nearly all the news derived from Germany, emphasizes the centralized nature of their Europe. The direct criticism was unsurprisingly avoided in these presentations. This was easy in the cases of distant Slovakia and Croatia but the actual situation in Estonia was more known in Finland and could not be totally ignored. Consequently the news ceased long before the war ended.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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“An Excellent Friend Afflicted with Internal Difficulties”: The Image of Romania Conveyed by the Finnish Embassy in Bucharest, 1939-1945


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 21-33
No. of Pages: 13
Keywords: , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: How people perceive their environment has a crucial role in all decisions they make. This is true in the relations between nations and countries, too. It can also be argued that mental images as such form an important part in all human interaction. This paper analyzes the image of Romania that was created and conveyed by the Finnish embassy in Bucharest during the Second World War. The Second World War was a turning point in Finnish-Romanian relations. The Finnish embassy was established in Bucharest in late 1939, and as a consequence of the war Finland and Romania – as co-belligerents – clearly became more important to each other than ever before. Existing common knowledge of Romania was relatively scarce in Finland, so Finnish envoys had a good chance in affecting perceptions of Romania among leading Finnish political circles. This analysis focuses on the main elements of this image, as well as the overall image of Romania that was conveyed to Finland through diplomatic material created by the embassy in Bucharest. The main task in this analysis is to explain the composition of the image – why it was exactly as it was. It can be seen that the image of Romania was created not only on the basis of domestic features and bilateral factors but also on the basis of larger cultural and political views and aims.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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