Warning: "continue" targeting switch is equivalent to "break". Did you mean to use "continue 2"? in /home/cetatead/vjhs.ro/wp-content/themes/Divi/includes/builder/functions.php on line 4763
Europe Archives – Valahian Journal of Historical Studies
Warning: count(): Parameter must be an array or an object that implements Countable in /home/cetatead/vjhs.ro/wp-includes/kses.php on line 893

Europe

The Quest for a Russian Identity in Europe in the late Nineteen Century


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 11-22
No. of Pages: 12
Keywords: , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: Political Russia was a superposed structure of Russian society which posed as the latter for at least two centuries, and which modelled itself following European standards, but without creating connections with its legitimizing source. To justify its expansionist claims, the tsarist empire invoked the Byzantine legacy which it was entitled to in its opinion, especially under the circumstances of the power void in eastern European space. This first approach of the relation with Europe, where Russia claimed its position, aroused different reactions in the Russian population: integrating ones on the part of the elite that wished to embrace the European civilization heritage, and rejection at the social level, where European values were difficult to grasp due to the incipient stage of political awareness in the Russian masses.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



Share this article
Facebooktwitterlinkedinmail

Europeaness versus National-Communism: United Europe as a gateway to non-alignment for Ceauşescu’s régime


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 63-78
No. of Pages: 16
Keywords: , , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The National-Communist regime in Romania focused on two primary objectives: a modernization program meant to overcome underdevelopment by a new wave of industrialization and an independent position in the international affairs in order to gain domestic legitimacy and protection against the Soviet control. Ceauşescu’s regime developed an entire concept on the future of Europe, based on the economical cooperation and respect for sovereignty, with the intention to gain support for its major political goals. This study examines Ceauşescu’s concept of Europe and the way he used the non-alignment rhetoric to justify its purposes. “Europe” is an ideological instrument which served for asserting international independence and for granting easy access to technological and financial gateways towards development.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



Share this article
Facebooktwitterlinkedinmail

Constructing new identities in transforming Europe. Enlargement and integration: are they compatible? The 6th Aleksanteri Conference


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 113-117
No. of Pages: 5
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The 6th annual conference of the Aleksanteri Institute for Russian and East-European Studies took place in the favourable cadre created by the Finnish Presidency of the EU. Consequently, the conference enjoyed the support of the Finnish Ministry for Foreign Affairs and the presence of Dr Erkki Tuomioja, a historian by training and the Finnish titular of this portfolio. Markku Kangaspuro who has masterminded this conference underlined already in the opening words the significance of the identities and of the transformations they have undertaken at the turn of the new millennium for such important processes as the European construction and the European dialogue with other cultures and entities as well as the difficulties and disagreements in defining Europe as against “the other(s).”
Open access on CEEOL: YES



Share this article
Facebooktwitterlinkedinmail

Peter Calvocoressi, Europa de la Bismarck la Gorbaciov (Polirom : Iasi, 2006), 232 pp.


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 147-149
No. of Pages: 3
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: REVIEW: Peter Calvocoressi was a lecturer at Sussex University. He wrote „World Politics since 1945”, which is now at its 8th edition. He is considered one the most important contemporary historians. Polirom Publishing House published also some of his other works: “Break the lines. The Second World War and the post war Europe” (2000) and “Europe from Bismarck to Gorbachev”. Calvocoressi’s work is one of those extensive studies which evaluate the history of modern and contemporary Europe, from the last two centuries, tracking the line of the events that influenced the destiny of the continent. The main direction is given by the open or hidden conflicts between the great powers, from the two World Wars up to the Cold War. The book is structured on three sections.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



Share this article
Facebooktwitterlinkedinmail

Review: Markku Kangaspuro, Constructed Identities in Europe (Helsinki: Aleksanteri Series, 7/2007), 272 pp.


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 119-122
No. of Pages: 4
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: This volume is the result of a research project entitled “Constructing new identities in transforming Europe enlargement and integration: are they compatible?” developed by Aleksanteri Instutite from the University of Helsinki and coordinated by Dr. Markku Kangaspuro. The articles which compose the volume have been written by selected participants to the 7th Aleksanteri Conference of October 2006. The title of the volume resounds the above mentioned research project.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



Share this article
Facebooktwitterlinkedinmail

Napoléon III, L’Europe et la formation de l’État National Roumain moderne (1853-1870)


Language: French
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 15-34
No. of Pages: 20
Keywords: , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The reopening of the Oriental Crisis, with the launching of the Crimean War (1853-1856), brought the Romanian Principalities situation on the close-up of the European attention. The Peace Congress from Paris (1856), besides the fact that discussed the Romanian Principalities situation as a component of the Oriental Crisis solution, it revealed a new disposal in the alliance system initiated during the Crimean War. Between 1856 and 1859, the Principalities Unification remained in the attention of the European diplomacy and public opinion. France and its Emperor Napoleon III, supported it on the European stage, as a terminus objective of his policy in South-East Europe. The gratitude of the Romanians, officially expressed by Prince Alexandru Ioan Cuza, was real and strong, and Napoleon III its first beneficiary. The Unification of the Romanian Principalities appeared as his first great act in applying the nationalities principle. In the same time, France was the European power that constantly supported the Union and the Romanian Nation elected in the period 1859-1866. It represented the most significant moral and material support in the edification process of the modern Romanian national state. At the beginning of the year 1866, the Oriental politics of France was still effective and consistent. Carol I was obviously more decided to do some independence gestures, even though his enthroning in Romania had the support of Napoleon III. The rising of Prussia on the European stage in 1866 reoriented the French policy toward Austria. At the beginning of the year 1867, the attitude of the unfavorable circles from Paris was visible, and with the year 1868, the crisis in the relations with France reached its culminant point. The estrangement of France from Romania constituted a fact, while the Romanians were finding out, in 1867, that in his orientation toward Austria, Napoleon III, in order to counterbalance Prussia’s influence, offered at the meeting from Salzburg the United Principalities (Romania) to Austro-Hungary, as compensation for strengthening the alliance with Vienna. Due to prudence, as long as the European situation remained mostly unchanged, the efforts and the concessions of the Romanian officials to maintain the good relations with France, did not have the expected results. At the beginning of 1870, the French policy became unpredictable. It proved to be rather inactive after 1871 in Orient. In Romania’s case, it was full of reproaches, suspicions, because Paris did not pursued future objectives and stakes anymore. Its own internal problems, but also the influences of Austro-Hungary, Russia and Germany on external plan, regarding Orient until 1878, encouraged France to abandon the Oriental zone, and implicitly the former interests regarding Romania.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



Share this article
Facebooktwitterlinkedinmail

Introduction


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 5-6
No. of Pages: 2
Keywords: , ,
Summary/Abstract: With this issue, Valahian Journal of Historical Studies brings forward once more the topic of Europe’s political, ideological, cultural, etc. artificial division between East and West, and argues that only the knowledge of the problem could be the base of solving the problem.
Open access on CEEOL: YES



Share this article
Facebooktwitterlinkedinmail

Contemporary Extremism as an Intelligence Problem


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 9-15
No. of Pages: 7
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: Current socio-economic turbulence and demographic shifts across Europe have been linked in the global media to worsening ideological polarizations, which have been blamed for various incidents of organized violence, most notably the Breivik massacre in Norway. For intelligence professionals intent on stopping similar acts of violence and terrorist plots, the ability to distinguish local actors, motives and ideologies is crucial; however, the tendency towards sweeping generalizations and blanket assumptions as seen in media and political discourse today is unhelpful in this context. In this light, the following paper examines the issue of extremism as an intelligence problem, or puzzle, citing examples from recent history in or involving the Balkans.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



Share this article
Facebooktwitterlinkedinmail