diplomatic relations

The Diplomatic Relations between Romania and Italy: 1879-1914


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 36-52
No. of Pages: 17
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The reopening of the Eastern crisis has caused a new configuration in the traditional relations between Romania and Italy. The establishment of diplomatic relations at legation level between Rome and Bucharest (December 1878) and the signature of a Consular Convention and an Extradition Convention (August 1880) created the legal framework for progressing the relations between the two states. In the context of the Triple Alliance, the joining of Italy to the Austro-Romanian Treaty of October 1883 appears as a large project designed to increase the military cooperation between the allies through naval and military conventions. Italy was thus involved politically and militarily in an area where it had no direct interest to the exclusive advantages in the Austria-Hungary, Romania and Germany. In this way, the Agreement and its provisions constituted a burden on Italy for as long as this country remained tied to this political-military system. The alliance between Italy and Romania will bring a certain intimacy in the relationship between the two governments, at times well-defined (the Balkan question, relations with Austria-Hungary and Russia), but will also create some moments of tension, as it was the case with the violent campaign staged by the Romanian press against Italy in 1912, during the Italo-Turkish war.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



Share this article
Facebooktwitterlinkedinmail

Canada’s relations with the U.S.S.R. and its satellites in a divided world


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 83-94
No. of Pages: 12
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The political changes in the postwar world, characterized mainly by the lack of trust and diplomatic tensions were framing a new context for Canada’s relations with the new communist bloc. A fresh start, leading the way for new developments, occurred at the end of the World War II and was characterized by the world dominance of the two superpowers: U.S.A. and the Soviet Union. In terms of bipolar world and of U.S. proximity, Canada has promoted a foreign policy pattern characterized by prudence, patience, compromise and flexibility. On the other hand, the Eastern European states’ foreign policy, at least in the early postwar years, has proven the strong imprint of Moscow’s policy. From this perspective, Canada and Eastern Europe, lacking resources and opportunities to initiate and support their views on major international issues, developed a foreign policy of response to the actions of superpowers, trying to reduce East–West tensions.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



Share this article
Facebooktwitterlinkedinmail

Out of sight, not always out of might. Bilateral relations between distant small countries; methodological observations


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 5-19
No. of Pages: 15
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: Studying bilateral relations of “distant” countries is a complex issue, especially in cases where there are no evident mutual interests or mutual threats or when there are no special conflicting interests either. However, this kind of research does not necessarily differ qualitatively or methodically from the study of countries and cultures which are much closer to each other. However, the undramatic day-to-day affairs, which have not moved the destinies of the two nations, can often reveal interesting examples of political identities and mentalities and surprising links, especially if the bilateral relations have been used in order to gain a foothold of the wider reference group of the other party. Most often it is hoped that one would find markets for its products or diplomatic support and to make oneself more known also among other countries in the area. However, it is more common to find negative than positive stereotypes, when one deals with bilateral “distant” relations. It is what is peculiar, odd, exotic, even frightening and shocking, that gets the attention and is exaggerated. All this creates a contrast and a possibility to strengthen one’s own identity. I shall here refer to some examples especially in the Finnish case. All in all, studying the bilateral relations of two distant countries in the very least gives a possibility to find something new; how have those narratives, which we already know, been seen on a smaller scale and in unusual arenas – and how have these smaller nations themselves influenced the larger narrative?
Open access on CEEOL: NO



Share this article
Facebooktwitterlinkedinmail

“An Excellent Friend Afflicted with Internal Difficulties”: The Image of Romania Conveyed by the Finnish Embassy in Bucharest, 1939-1945


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 21-33
No. of Pages: 13
Keywords: , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: How people perceive their environment has a crucial role in all decisions they make. This is true in the relations between nations and countries, too. It can also be argued that mental images as such form an important part in all human interaction. This paper analyzes the image of Romania that was created and conveyed by the Finnish embassy in Bucharest during the Second World War. The Second World War was a turning point in Finnish-Romanian relations. The Finnish embassy was established in Bucharest in late 1939, and as a consequence of the war Finland and Romania – as co-belligerents – clearly became more important to each other than ever before. Existing common knowledge of Romania was relatively scarce in Finland, so Finnish envoys had a good chance in affecting perceptions of Romania among leading Finnish political circles. This analysis focuses on the main elements of this image, as well as the overall image of Romania that was conveyed to Finland through diplomatic material created by the embassy in Bucharest. The main task in this analysis is to explain the composition of the image – why it was exactly as it was. It can be seen that the image of Romania was created not only on the basis of domestic features and bilateral factors but also on the basis of larger cultural and political views and aims.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



Share this article
Facebooktwitterlinkedinmail

Considerations regarding Romania’s consulates in Poland in the interwar period


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 122-135
No. of Pages: 14
Keywords: , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: In the current study, I analyze a topic less approached by Romanian researchers so far, such as the organization of the consular network of Romania in Poland between the two World Wars. I have chosen this topic as a result of my preoccupation with the analysis of the way in which the diplomatic missions and consular offices of Romania were organized and run in the interwar period. I start from the premise that a better knowledge of the institutional architecture of the Romanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and of the diplomatic and consular missions can help better our understanding of the way in which the Romanian diplomacy acted between the two World Wars. In the present case, the investigation on the foundation, functioning and dissolution of Romania’s career and honorary consulates on the territory of Poland represents an indicator that captures, from this angle, the complexity of the relations between the two neighbouring states. I am not only interested in the political, economic or cultural elements of the functioning of the Romanian consular network in Poland, but also in the human factor. We are interested in seeing, for instance, who the Romanian career consuls were (Warsaw, Lwów), as well as those who guaranteed the honorary consulates of Romania (Łódź, Wilno, Katowice etc.) and their relations to the diplomatic mission of Romania in Warsaw.
Open access on CEEOL: NOT YET



Share this article
Facebooktwitterlinkedinmail