crisis

Between East and West: Poland, 1980-1981


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 105-132
No. of Pages: 28
Keywords: , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The Second World War geopolitically divided the European continent into a democratic and free Western Europe and an oppressed and ideologically controlled Eastern Europe. The events of 1980-1981 have positioned Poland between East and West, considering the unfolding of the events (not a free protest, but not an immediate violent repression either), the emergence of an organized civil society based on the alliance between intellectuals, workers, and the church (far from the meaning of Western Europe, but unlike the homogenous, controlled society of Eastern Socialism), or the outcome (not a democratic regime, but not a Communist one-party system either).
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Diplomacy, Propaganda and War in 1877-1878: The case of Romania


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 247-262
No. of Pages: 16
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The tensions existing in the Balkan Peninsula during the seventh and the eighth decades of the 19th century were generated by the deep crisis the Ottoman Empire was crossing through and the evident intention of Russia to act as a great protector of Christians living in this area. These circumstances forced the Romanian state to decide also vis-à-vis the perennial Eastern Question. The Romanian initiatives by which Bucharest was trying to induce at least the idea of separation of the Ottoman Empire met with the reluctance of the Guarantor Powers. In these circumstances, a strong propaganda in the media targeting politicians and intellectuals in Western Europe was pursued in the period 1866-1877. The ones who will be involved in this action and whether they succeeded is an important goal of our approach, as well as the existence of different national attitudes to the crisis that broke out in 1875 and special ways to resolve it in order to achieve and change the international legal status of Romania. The failure of a few attempts to change the international legal status by such peaceful means, war became the remaining option of the governmental circles. Expression of the decision of Prince Charles I and the other two liberals surrounding him in 1877, IC Bratianu and M. Kogalniceanu, the independence proclaimed by the Parliament in Bucharest stressed the decision to no longer accept the maintenance of relations with Sublime Porte in a traditional formula considered now obsolete. The recognition of the independence of Romania was an Odyssey in which a constant effort by a large part of the Romanian political class was undertaken to receive the blessing of the international community.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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