Issue No. 23-24 (2015)


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 6-15
No. of Pages: 10
Keywords: , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The Catholic communities in the 18th century Wallachia although belonging to the same denomination are diverse by language, ethnic origin and historical evolution. The oldest community was founded in Câmpulung in the second half of the 13th century by Transylvanian Saxons. At the beginning of the 17th century the Saxons lost their mother tongue and adopted the Romanian as colloquial language. Other communities were founded by Catholic Bulgarians who crossed the Danube in 1688, after the defeat of their rebellion by the Ottomans. The refugees came from four market-towns of north-western Bulgaria: Čiprovci, Kopilovci, Železna and Klisura. The Paulicians, a distinct group of Catholics from Bulgaria, settled north of the Danube during the 17th and 18th centuries. The homeland of this group was the Nikopolis region. Their ancestors, adherents of a medieval heresy, had been converted by Franciscans friars. Bucharest, the capital city of Wallachia, housed a composite Catholic community of distinct origins, which came into being during the last quarter of the 17th century. In this community the Catholic Armenians became predominant by the mid-18th century. The main object of our study is the history of the Catholic communities in a predominant Orthodox country under Ottoman rule.
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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 16-40
No. of Pages: 25
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The aim of this multidisciplinary research paper is to identify and create a unitary updated database of the almost 200 wooden churches from historical Bucovina (region that is currently divided between Romania and Ukraine). One can observe the abandonment of many wooden churches by the authorities, and the fact that they are currently under a real threat of disappearance. The project blends the synthesis of field and archive documentation research made in the last 20 years on the knowledge, historical evolution and status of these wooden monuments that represent the Romanian heritage from Bucovina. Based on the dendrochronological analyses, it was determined that the wooden church from Putna is one of the oldest in Europe. In the open-air museums from Suceava, Cernăuţi and Lvov several representative wooden churches are preserved.
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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 41-64
No. of Pages: 24
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: Limited by the requirements of mass communication, which main objective is to transmit a message of public interest about a factual event, to a large audience, by necessary linguistic requirements and also by the economical requirements in terms of covering the expenses of editing, printing and distributing a media product, the religious press usually represents a public voice authorized by the leaders of the cult that it represents and it is settled between the borders and the terminology of the cult. In addition to the religious terminology, this kind of media demands a reader who is familiar with this field of reality, a situational context and also some communicational acts with significance both to the sender and the receiver as members of a congregation, regardless if they are ministers or simple adepts. To what extend the work of the religious press editor represents journalistic activity ruled by the specific journalistic ethical values and to what extend his/her activity represents public relation activity which main objective is to promote the social image of the an institution and to preach the religious teachings of the cult? How do these two necessary aspects coexist in the activity of the religious press journalist?
A glance over the history of the Romanian religious press, using the discourse analysis method of research, reveals the existence of both an obedient press according to the requirements of the institution and its regulations and a more liberal press whose freedom of expression has led to the publishing of various polemics regarding the organization and day-to-day running of the Orthodox Church.
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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 65-77
No. of Pages: 12
Keywords: , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: Women’s struggle for civil and political rights was, by far, one of the most difficult actions in the history of the feminist movements, because the claim for these rights was considered by the majority of the male population a great immoderacy. The main purpose of this paper is to analyse some aspects of the Romanian women’s struggle for the acquirement of civil and political rights, more exactly of the right to vote and to identify some distinct features of the feminist movement in Romania regarding the struggle for electoral rights.
In Romania, the idea of attainment of civil and political rights by women became a public matter in the second half of the XIXth century, closely related to the democratization process. The implication of the Romanian women in some new aspects of the social and political life, at the end of the XIXth century and in the early XXth century, contributed both to the evolution of their political representation and to the making of some specific themes better known at a larger scale. Their actions changed the face of Romanian politics in the early XXth century and contributed to increasing the people’s interest for the political matters in Romania, which is, probably – along with their emancipation and acquirement of political rights – their most important victory.
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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 78-97
No. of Pages: 20
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: In the period between the two world wars local charity organizations and branches of the charity organization in the Capital functioned in the city of Ploiesti as well. Their work would aid the needy, especially: new born, future mothers, tuberculosis sick, students with health problems  and elderly without income. The charity actions of these companies were supported by grants from physical entities and judicial entities, as well as the local authorities, especially  Ploiesti City Hall.
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Language: French
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 98-121
No. of Pages: 24
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: L’approche habituelle de l’histoire politique de la Roumanie moderne et contemporaine est encore trop descriptive. Au delà des narrations, on se contente de constater, selon les prédispositions de l’historien, le fonctionnement exemplaire ou défectueux de la démocratie roumaine. Cette large marge d’interprétation est possible à cause d’un manque chronique de liaison entre les faits, les normes et les théories des époques recherchées. On se propose ici une multiple mise en contexte. On présente quelques unes des actions du premier roi Roumain, tout en regardant le texte de la Constitution de 1866, les constitutions et les pratique étrangères et les théories dominantes de l’Europe du XIXe siècle. Celui qui a été, sans doute, un monarque constitutionnel, selon la constitution roumaine, n’apparait pas si constitutionnel, selon le modèle Britannique qui commençait à s’imposer peu à peu. Charles Ier a régné et gouverné à la fois. Il n’a pas été par cela un cas singulier parmi les monarques du Sud-est européen. Le régime de l’Ancien Royaume a été loin des démocraties parlementaires occidentales, mais il été le plus fort et le plus stable de ce coin du continent.
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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 122-135
No. of Pages: 14
Keywords: , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: In the current study, I analyze a topic less approached by Romanian researchers so far, such as the organization of the consular network of Romania in Poland between the two World Wars. I have chosen this topic as a result of my preoccupation with the analysis of the way in which the diplomatic missions and consular offices of Romania were organized and run in the interwar period. I start from the premise that a better knowledge of the institutional architecture of the Romanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and of the diplomatic and consular missions can help better our understanding of the way in which the Romanian diplomacy acted between the two World Wars. In the present case, the investigation on the foundation, functioning and dissolution of Romania’s career and honorary consulates on the territory of Poland represents an indicator that captures, from this angle, the complexity of the relations between the two neighbouring states. I am not only interested in the political, economic or cultural elements of the functioning of the Romanian consular network in Poland, but also in the human factor. We are interested in seeing, for instance, who the Romanian career consuls were (Warsaw, Lwów), as well as those who guaranteed the honorary consulates of Romania (Łódź, Wilno, Katowice etc.) and their relations to the diplomatic mission of Romania in Warsaw.
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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 136-148
No. of Pages: 13
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The current paper would be a constructivist effort to interpret whether or not Lloyd George and Winston Churchill’s press appearances in the inter-war years were influential in determining the course of the British appeasement policy towards Germany. The topic has not yet been specifically approached from the perspective of newspaper articles published by the two wartime British Prime Ministers. The influence of the written press on public opinion and, in turn, the latter’s influence on Britain’s appeasement policy makers speaks on behalf of research which aims to better assess the sources of Britain’s appeasement of Nazi Germany. Britain’s written press was no foreign matter to David Lloyd George or to Winston Churchill before their descending to 10 Downing Street. Lloyd George’s interest for newspapers grew since his youth and he came to write a large number of newspaper articles. Churchill firmly opposed appeasement on both political and editorial grounds, being a renowned reporter since his Great War correspondent years. The subject was approached by reference to previous research works of biographers and historians. The research then revolves around the press articles and the speeches of the two politicians, reported in the British local newspapers, found through the British Newspaper Archive. It would be fair to conclude that David Lloyd George relied on newspapers to support the appeasement policy, while Winston Churchill’s articles and his famous speeches are a proof of his warnings about appeasement dangers. Their editorial works marked Britain’s inter-war history and its appeasement policy.
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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 149-159
No. of Pages: 11
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: In the relations with the Western World, the Romanian Communist Party becomes very active, especially in the ’60-’70s. At party level, the need of some relations with the Western European Left-wing Parties was linked to Ceauşescu’s conviction that a statement of sovereignty, an expression of the Western Communist Parties’ own interests in relation to Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, as well as a disagreement attitude with the bipolarity of the Cold War, could represent new battlefields for a common cause in the matter of the European security: weakening of the influence of the powerful state conglomerates. In addition, the imperative of the unity of left-wing forces in the European states to support socialism in their attempt to come to power, as well as the ideas expressed in the euro-communism theses, also under centrifugal tendencies, will constitute topics between Romanian Communist Party and various delegations representing western left-wing parties. Such meetings did not bypass the Belgian Communist Party (BCP) or the Belgian Socialist Party (BSP) either, parties with which the Romanian Communist Party maintained consistent relations commencing 1966. This study aims to identify attitudes, convictions or even visions for all these matters in relation to dialogues between Romanian and Belgian parties.
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Language: English
Subject(s): Review
Page Range: 162-164
No. of Pages: 11
Keywords:
Summary/Abstract:
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