Issue No. 17 (2012)


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 5-42
No. of Pages: 38
Keywords: , , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The present paper tries to bring forward an ideological reinterpretation of the Romanian communist ideology from the „golden age”. „Romantic Leninism” implies an apparently incompatible ideological hybridity between Leninism, Romanticism and even Fascism, endemic with reference to the other communist regimes from Eastern Europe and even the whole world. Without neglecting its international manifestations, the accent lies here on several concepts considered to be the theoretical backbone of what I have named romantic Leninism. Following the analysis of the ideological structure of romantic Leninism, this part of the paper deals with Nicolae Ceaușescu’s personality cult and the particular type of socialist economy implemented during his leadership, both underlined by the heroic-romantic ideal of „building socialism”. On the whole, I intend to prove that romantic Leninism represented, under different appearances, a unified assault over the „bourgeois” conscience of Romanian society, in the attempt of replacing it with another type of conscience, that of the well-known „new man”, robotized and following exclusively the party’s goals, which he accepts as his own.
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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 43-52
No. of Pages: 10
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The legislation that came into force after 1945 has been approached by many researchers, who analyzed the various reforms of the communist regime (the educational, the agrarian or the economical reforms enjoyed the attention of many researchers). Laws concerning nationalities were also not omitted by historians. Nevertheless, researchers who approach the Nationalities Statute, for example, do nothing but to present its provisions without showing what was the position of the communist leaders several years after promulgation. Therefore, this has become one of the goals of this paper. The article is also intended to show and analyze the citizenship regulatory laws and the 1948 Constitution from the point of view of „cohabiting nationalities”. It is attempting to show why Romanian Communists made some concessions to minorities and how these laws were seen by the leading communist.
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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 53-66
No. of Pages: 14
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The following document will describe relevant aspects regarding the relations among “peoples’ democracies” during the Stalinist period (1948-1953). Although their degree of autonomy was severely reduced due to Soviet pressures, certain enmities did persist, in spite of the so-called “uniformity”. The traditional Romanian-Hungarian conflict over Transylvania resurfaced after 1947. The Communist regimes in power continued the rivalry over this territory, bringing new arguments which were in accordance with the political environment. The Hungarians used internationalist arguments in order to justify their interest in the situation of the Hungarian minority in Romania. On the other hand, the Romanian communists used the anti-cosmopolitan rhetoric of the time in order to reject any interference from Budapest.
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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 67-89
No. of Pages: 23
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: Being a political movement, modern Zionism could not pretend a monolithic unity from its followers. Besides some unanimously accepted principles – the return of the Jews to Palestine and to Judaism, the incompatibility between Zionism with the Diaspora assimilationism and the international socialism (communism or bolshevism) – anything else was allowed. Consequently, extremely various Zionist trends were born, from those situated at the left side of the political range to those situated at the extreme right; from the laic trends to the cultural and religious ones. During the interwar period, all these trends organized themselves as political parties and decisively influenced the life of the Jewish communities both in Palestine and the Diaspora (including the Great Romania). Our study aims at placing under scrutiny precisely this influence of the Zionist political trends upon the area around the mouths of the Danube and identifying the potential differences between the counties in the Old Kingdom and those in southern Bessarabia.
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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 91-103
No. of Pages: 13
Keywords: , , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: Although a small country, Portugal came to occupy during World War II a central place on the great powers’ agenda. This was a result of both the country’s strictly neutral position during the war and of its geostrategic position. If during the interwar period Romanian diplomacy showed little interest in Portugal, this changed dramatically with the outbreak of the war. Romania’s involvement in the Iberian country overlapped the great powers’ interest. Portugal was regarded as a fertile ground for conducting espionage operations, spreading propaganda, handling negotiations and signing economic agreements. The Romanian government showed also an interest in obtaining information on the government and public opinion’s orientation, and the impact of the Anglo-American and German actions on Portuguese neutrality. Victor Cădere assumed the office of minister plenipotentiary and envoy extraordinary of Romania in Portugal at the beginning of January 1942, replacing Dimitrie Jurascu. His appointment does not seem hazardous, grounded as it was on the important role the diplomat was called to play as an intermediary between the Romanian, and the British and the American governments and as a supervisor of the cultural and economic approach between Romania and Portugal, on the other hand. Benefitting from the assistance of outstanding cultural personalities such as Mircea Eliade, and of other dedicated members of the legation, the envoy succeeded in promoting the Romanian culture in Portugal and in emphasizing its role within Central and Eastern Europe.
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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 105-126
No. of Pages: 22
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The beginnings of the Turkish\Ottoman – American relationship could be framed in the second part of the eighteenth century; they will evolve more consistently especially from the cultural/ religious and commercial point of view. In the interwar period, the relations will also tighten from a diplomatic standpoint, without excelling. The Second World War places Turkey under American strategic analysis, that doesn’t reserve a possible belligerent position if this fact would imply massive financial and military resources. However, Turkey is not indifferent to the United States, which undertake a series of initiatives (Lend-Lease policy, launching of rumours about potential guarantees and sending of prospective political missions, joining United Kingdom, at Cairo, in the effort to persuade Turkish leaders to abandon neutrality, in one way or another, buying the chrome production to reduce its export to Germany, intelligence activities) that support our statement. United States take into account the special position of Turkey, more important than compared to other neutral states. But bilateral relations did not lack in tensions, which occurred mostly at the beginning and the end of the period (United States’ negative reactions on Turkish-German treaty, dated 1941; or the strong appeal – which included threat, also – to the neutral states, in April 1944, to cease all help given to Axis states, the United States’ stand in the last months of war and first months of peace, when Turkey had become already a subject in Soviet demands). In conclusion, beyond appearances, we could observe a certain unrest in Turkey-United States relations, more obvious than in other United States’ relations with neutral countries; in the last instance, this situation arose from the United States pursue of its war objectives, combined with a very well concealed desire, from the Turkish side, to have a more consistent relationship with the United States, possibly for an indefinite term.
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Language: English
Subject(s): Review
Page Range: 127-128
No. of Pages: 2
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The authoress developed an excellent scientific work on the Romanian-Bulgarian relations in a time of high tension in the international relations (1938-1940), which made its mark also on the Romanian-Bulgarian bilateral relations. In an inspired way, the plan of the work is also designed to highlight the impact of the international factors on the bilateral relations: the Agreement of Thessaloniki, the Czechoslovak Crisis and the Munich Agreement, the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact, the onset of the Second World War, the Soviet ultimatum to Romania in June 1940 and the Vienna Dictate etc.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Language: English
Subject(s): Review
Page Range: 129-130
No. of Pages: 2
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: Relations between Russia and its East European neighbors had always been a complex issue, in which media and policy-makers usually express a wide variety of opinions ranging from appeals for friendship and cooperation to warnings of domination and security threats. Recently, these relations have been subjected to a constructive academic debate in the Irish city of Cork, during an international conference organized by the Irish Association for Russian, Central and East European Studies and University College of Cork. The conference brought together both young researchers and senior scholars from numerous countries, especially from Central and East European institutions, and debates focused on Russia’s policies in this regions of Europe, especially in the 20th century and after. A solid input of historical background from different case studies provided for an in-depth analysis on the issues debated.
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Language: English
Subject(s): Review
Page Range: 131-132
No. of Pages: 2
Keywords: , ,
Summary/Abstract: Although the Cold War had been the subject of intense debates and researches in the past decades, there are still research areas which did not receive sufficient attention. Beyond the level of high politics, the Cold War affected the lives of millions, caused social changes, with dramatic consequences sometimes, and generated new currents and forms of manifestation in the field of culture. Such evolutions have only been subjected to in-depth analysis in the last years, emerging as a new and fascinating field of research worldwide. In June 2012, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, organized an international conference, aiming to explore other less known aspects of the Cold War, respectively culture. The organizers envisaged a multi-disciplinary conference, bringing together research connected with cultural exchanges in the Cold War era, both from the East and from the West, encouraging theoretical discussion at the same time, about potential definitions of the cultural Cold War and the validity of the concept itself. Participants from more than 20 countries and academic institutions answered to this call, turning the event in Jyväskylä into one of the most successful conferences organized in Nordic Europe this year.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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