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Issue No. 13 (2010) Archives – Page 2 of 2 – Valahian Journal of Historical Studies
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Issue No. 13 (2010)


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 5-6
No. of Pages: 2
Keywords: , ,
Summary/Abstract: With this issue, Valahian Journal of Historical Studies brings forward once more the topic of Europe’s political, ideological, cultural, etc. artificial division between East and West, and argues that only the knowledge of the problem could be the base of solving the problem.
Open access on CEEOL: YES



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Language: English
Subject(s): Cultural history
Page Range: 7-10
No. of Pages: 4
Keywords: , , , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: WA book in the possession of the British Library since 1873 has been identified as a very rare, probably unique copy of a Romanian language catechism produced in Alba Iulia in 1699. This book, Bucoavnă, was printed by Mihai Iştvanovici, who was probably of Serbian origin. The volume, which is in generally very good condition except for missing its title page, which has been replaced with a photocopy, once belonged to the distinguished French orientalist Isaac Silvestre de Sacy.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Language: French
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 11-34
No. of Pages: 24
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The analysis of the political discourse of the Transylvanian social-democrats during the years 1917-1918 implies a very difficult work, mainly because of the lack of a consistent theoretical support, and also because of the very few documentary sources. For the writing of this study we selected those documents that we considered fundamental in understanding the political language and attitude of the Romanian social-democrats in Hungary. Obviously, the texts are known in special literature, but our opinion is that their mean was in a great deal vitiated by thesist interpretations, by some ideological opinions. Our aim is to try to offer an analysis of the way the discourse of the Romanian social-democrats in Hungary changed in the years 1917-1918 from the proclamation of the internationalist clichés, specific to the left wing, to the principle of self-government and finally to the recognition of the union of the Romanians in Transylvania with Romania.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 35-50
No. of Pages: 16
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: In December 1937 the last democratic elections were held in Romania, only to be followed by more than half a decade of authoritarian and totalitarian regimes. The elections recorded an important distinctiveness in a country where the governmental party has always managed to win majorities as defined by the 1926 electoral law the Liberal Party failed to gain the needed 40% of votes, while the biggest gains were made by the extreme right Legionnaire Movement. This study analyses the response of the electorate from the Bucovina province to the challenges of the Romanian society, i.e. the advance of the extreme rightwing parties and the worsening of the European political crisis. The article approaches the local and provincial elections, the general and particular trends, the special characteristics in the province’s cosmopolitan north. The electorate of Cernăuţi and Storojineţ was studied in terms of voting behavior of the minorities, e.g. the Ukrainians, Germans and Jews.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 51-82
No. of Pages: 32
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: During the first years of the 1960s Romania defined its so-called independent foreign policy doctrine. Although the causes and motives of its ‘deviation’ from Moscow’s line have been largely studied, the findings of the previous research seem questionable in the light of the data offered by the new archive documents. While the previous studies used exclusively an objectivist approach and focused on the actors’ motives and the external pressures to explain the ‘deviation’, the newly available archive documents suggest that the decision was heavily influenced by the way the Romanian decision-makers perceived the external environment and identified threats. The paper is structured in two major parts. The first one presents in short the scholarship in this filed and reveals its methodological problems: the objectivist approach and the misuse of the archive sources. The second one, on the basis on the new archive documents and using a perceptual approach, presents some new explanations for the Romanian detachment. In analyzing the leaders’ perceptions, I use the so-called representational model, which assumes that inferences may be drawn directly from the subject’s statements. I focus on one attribute: perceptions of the Soviet Union’s aggressive intentions/threats against Romania. I conclude that at the beginning of the 1960s the Soviet Union was perceived in Bucharest as a direct and imminent threat to the Romanian state and, to some extent, to the communist ideology. These perceptions are highly responsible for the adoption of the so-called ‘Romanian independent foreign policy doctrine’ developed in the 1960s. The study brings into attentions the relevance the ideology (perceptions, ideas, beliefs, norms) had in the decision-making process during the Cold War. It also reveals the need for further research on the role of the Romanian communist leaders’ perceptions of the ‘others’ in adopting one decision or another.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 83-94
No. of Pages: 12
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The political changes in the postwar world, characterized mainly by the lack of trust and diplomatic tensions were framing a new context for Canada’s relations with the new communist bloc. A fresh start, leading the way for new developments, occurred at the end of the World War II and was characterized by the world dominance of the two superpowers: U.S.A. and the Soviet Union. In terms of bipolar world and of U.S. proximity, Canada has promoted a foreign policy pattern characterized by prudence, patience, compromise and flexibility. On the other hand, the Eastern European states’ foreign policy, at least in the early postwar years, has proven the strong imprint of Moscow’s policy. From this perspective, Canada and Eastern Europe, lacking resources and opportunities to initiate and support their views on major international issues, developed a foreign policy of response to the actions of superpowers, trying to reduce East–West tensions.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 95-104
No. of Pages: 10
Keywords: , , , , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The study analyses the Romanian-British tense relations beginning with the proclamation of the Romanian People’s Republic on 30 December 1947 until the beginning of 1954. My thesis is that, despite their different types of political regime, both countries hoped to establish a favourable agreement over the financial debts, but each awaited a favourable international evolution to strongly demand its own request. The research undertaken at the Diplomatic Archives of the Romanian Foreign Ministry and the Romanian National Archives disclosed new documents about the Romanian-British relations. The British Government sent to Romanian Government Notes Verbales with demands to liquidate the past financial issues, including British losses after the nationalization of June 1948, and continued to block Romanian pre-war funds in United Kingdom. Romanian People’s Republic opted for a delaying strategy and arrested the Romanian employees of British Legation in Bucharest in order to be informed on the British prospective measures.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 105-132
No. of Pages: 28
Keywords: , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The Second World War geopolitically divided the European continent into a democratic and free Western Europe and an oppressed and ideologically controlled Eastern Europe. The events of 1980-1981 have positioned Poland between East and West, considering the unfolding of the events (not a free protest, but not an immediate violent repression either), the emergence of an organized civil society based on the alliance between intellectuals, workers, and the church (far from the meaning of Western Europe, but unlike the homogenous, controlled society of Eastern Socialism), or the outcome (not a democratic regime, but not a Communist one-party system either).
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Language: English
Subject(s): Law, Constitution, Jurisprudence
Page Range: 133-143
No. of Pages: 11
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The settlement of the right to defence represents the most powerful guarantee offered to a person investigated by the judiciary authorities that the respective person will not be subject to abuse within the investigation and the trial. Regardless of its modalities of expression – the assistance or the representation of the investigated person – the right to defence must be understood as the whole of legal means for invoking and finding the circumstances which support the defence as well as for applying the favourable legal dispositions. If nowadays the legal profession is regulated by a distinct law regarding its organization and exertion, things were very different once. During the mediaeval period, the defence of an investigated person was assigned to one of his relatives or to the husband (in case of a married woman). Subsequently, this duty was assigned to „vechilului judiciar”, to the lawyers with „cu ştiinţă de pravilă”, and in Transylvania, to „procatorilor” or „procuratorilor”. The modern age, strongly influenced by Western Europe, brought about the creation of an unprecedented legislative framework for the Romanian Countries, powerfully connected to the realities of those times. The result was that, at the same time with the adoption of a Criminal Procedure Code, of French and later Italian influence, real guarantees of the right to defence were conferred within the criminal trial. Eventually, under the strong influence of Soviet legislation, this underwent numerous limitations. Nowadays, due to the transposition into national law of international juridical instruments to which Romania is a part, the right to defence is acknowledged as an integral part of the human rights.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Language: English
Subject(s): Politics / Political Sciences
Page Range: 145-157
No. of Pages: 13
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: Migration is a complex social phenomenon which affects societies at all levels – social, cultural, economical, educational, etc. To address the problems generated by this phenomenon in all these domains, several public policies need to be defined to soften migration’s impact related to integration and acceptance of immigrants. In this sense, states need to regulate a series of measures legitimated either from the desire to preserve common goods for future generations, either from the fear of cultural division or due to the fear of deviance from the accepted social norms. All these fears are reflected in national fierce full debates about social inclusion and observance of the minimal social and political rights of the immigrants. Taking into consideration all that, this paper refers to ethical principles of human rights and ecological perspectives in conceiving and implementing public policies related to labour migration phenomenon. Concepts like human rights ethics, „carrying capacity” and living standards are linked to what make an immigration policy being ethic and to whom this policy should be ethic. Furthermore, the article suggests some directions for analyzing labour immigration’s impact in the ethical perspective in order to properly define public policies related to this phenomenon, with the final goal of strengthening the states/social actors` cooperation relationships for limiting/stimulating the phenomenon.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Language: Italian
Subject(s): Review
Page Range: 159-161
No. of Pages: 3
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: Guidato dal sicuro programma di un approfondimento settoriale, cioè le relazioni rumeno-francesi di metà ‘800, Oncescu ha finito col comporre un robusto quadro di sintesi su un periodo di storia rumena, balcanica (o orientale, come si diceva allora) ed europea.
Open access on CEEOL: YES



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Language: English
Subject(s): Review
Page Range: 163-164
No. of Pages: 2
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: Alexandru Mamina’s work is a pioneering approach in the assemble of Romanian historical and political science writings about Social-Democracy and must be regarded with the highest intellectual satisfaction.
Open access on CEEOL: YES



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