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Issue No. 12 (2009) Archives – Valahian Journal of Historical Studies
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Issue No. 12 (2009)


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 5-6
No. of Pages: 2
Keywords: , , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The introduction presents the two parts of this issue: the first half is dedicated to the Communist regimes’ history and especially to their debacle and consequences and the second half approaches Romania’s position in the international relations in the first half of the 20th century.
Open access on CEEOL: YES



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Language: English
Subject(s): Politics / Political Sciences
Page Range: 7-28
No. of Pages: 22
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: At the end of 2009, twenty years after the fall of the communist regime, Romania seems on the verge of probably the deepest economic and social post-communist crisis. In times of crisis, masses tend to act in unexpected ways. They are either more easily allured by authoritarian discourses or more passive politically. In Romania they even show more nostalgia than usual for the recent communist past. Addressing the question of communist nostalgia in Romania, this article tackles questions such as: What is communist nostalgia in Romania? Who shows nostalgia for the communist past? Why does nostalgia for communism occur in Romania? How could this phenomenon be explained? The first part of the article briefly presents the previous interpretations about communist nostalgia in Romania during the last ten years. The second part advances new interpretations as to how Romanians’ communist nostalgia could be explained. The article finds previous explanations of communist nostalgia insufficient, and argues that the lack of a feeling of social welfare explains to a great extent this phenomenon. The conclusions are grounded in data – e.g. interviews with 27 persons and survey of 100 individuals.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Language: English
Subject(s): Cultural history
Page Range: 29-39
No. of Pages: 11
Keywords: , , , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: Music played a crucial role not only at the crisis points of Czech history, such as the 1968 Soviet-led invasion and the fall of communism in 1989, but in the long years in between, during the stifling period of renewed repression known as „normalization”, which saw opponents of the regime thrown out of work, persecuted and jailed. Despite repressions, a dedicated, highly versatile and underground movement continued on from the ’60s, staging illegal events including rock concerts and artistic happenings that challenged the status quo. The counterculture movement in Czechoslovakia in the ’60s had significant political consequences. The Plastic People of the Universe was – in our opinion – the most politically important rock band to ever exist. It would be the trial of the Plastic People, that would go on to inspire the important organization called Charter 77, gathering in solidarity with the persecuted musicians and propelling Václav Havel into the forefront of the resistance movement, which would eventually topple the Communist government in November 1989, in the Velvet Revolution. The amazing history of the Plastic People is so crucially intertwined with the history of Czechoslovakia that one can not fully understand the history of that country without knowing the history of the band, and vice versa. No other rock band has had to put up with the abuse and the obstacles that the Plastic People did during their lifetime. Yet they did not plan to risk their lives for their music. As Hlavsa said, they were „dissidents against their will”. Eventually, however, they came to realize that what they were doing was historically important and their very existence through the hard times their country was experiencing was a powerful symbol of freedom of expression to the younger generation of Czechs.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 41-50
No. of Pages: 10
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The Bern attempt was a unique event in the history of young RPR and it caused exaggerated fears among communist leaders. On one hand, the Romanian communist regime considered that the Western secret services had worked together with the aim proving Moscow’s upper hand on the Eastern popular democracies. On the other hand, February 1955 represented the date when the external Romanian resistance, in its various forms, passed from parlor opposition to a violent action marked by heroic symbolism. The Romanian refugees in the West showed that they were able to take special responsibilities and bring the name of the communist government from Bucharest to the attention of the whole world. On a medium and long term, the Bern attempt had somber consequences over the Romanian diplomacy. Those engaged in the activity of external agencies of Romania were placed under the Securitate (secret service) control for the rest of their lives. Theoretically, such an attempt should not have happened again and the prevention was assured by a secret service that was working with brutal methods. In order to prevent that kind of events recurring, the Legations and embassies of the R.P.R. undertook an enormous load of informative work, surveillance, infiltration, and terrorizing of the Romanian immigrants in the West.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 51-56
No. of Pages: 6
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The collectivization process took place in Romania between 1949 and 1962. The legal and mostly illegal mechanisms to achieve collectivization evoked negative reactions from the Romanian peasants. One of the reaction forms against the process was the riots or the rebellions. Such was the case of the women from Marcesti (Dobra parish, Dâmboviţa County, Romania). In February 1961, when Tudor Vladimirescu Collective Agricultural Farm (CAF) of Mărceşti was about to start its activity, 150 women rioted against collectivization. Their riot was rapidly reprimanded by the forces of order and eventually CAF Tudor Vladimirescu would become one of the most productive such collective farms in the region (department) of Ploieşti. The effects of the repression on the women and men of the village were manifold.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Language: German
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 57-77
No. of Pages: 21
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The reforms program proposed by I.I.C. Brătianu and the starting of the legal process for the Constitution’s revision profoundly stirred up the Romanian political life at the end of 1913 and in the first half of 1914. The vivid debates and controversial discussions on this topic which comprised the political parties, the press, the Parliament, also drew the attention of the diplomatic plenipotentiary representatives at Bucharest. The diplomatic reports drawn up by them and sent to the government of the states that they represented, contained important information, detailed analyses of the manner in which the political parties from Romania understood the problem of the two important reforms that worried the Romanian society for a half of century, the agrarian reform and the electoral reform. At the same time, the foreign diplomats’ attention was also drawn up by the way in which the parliamentary elections were organized, by the politicians’ behavior, noticing different reactions of the electoral body. Some of the diplomatic reports contain solid analyses of the Romanian electoral system, statements of some political personalities as well as numerous details referring to the agrarian reform. These documents are interesting also from the perspective of the conclusions and of the assessments made about the political class, the political parties or the electoral system in general. In the following pages we have in view to present 5 such diplomatic reports signed by the plenipotentiary minister of Austria-Hungary Empire in Bucharest, Ottokar von Czernin. The documents are from The Central Historical National Archives, Bucharest, folder Royal House, vol. I, 1865-1914 (Carol I). The opinions drawn out from these documents come to throw a much clearer light over the intentions of the political class of Romania, to proceed to state’s modernization and to impose a state of social calm. The conclusions are mostly realistic, relevant, and sometimes pessimistic when they referred to the liberals’ capacity to democratize the state’s structures.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 79-88
No. of Pages: 10
Keywords: , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: In the summer of 1913, the Balkan Wars and their consequences constituted a common topic to be discussed in the Parliament and the mass-media in Romania and Bulgaria. Party leaders, deputies, historians and publishers tensed up the atmosphere. Several press articles, annotations or propagandizing notes contained humiliating remarks for the pride of the neighbourly nation. The tension thus created put pressures on the negotiations conducted between the two Balkan Wars. While the Bulgarian authorities were trying to mitigate the discussions, the issues were approached in Bucharest as if it were a true ultimatum, bearing negative consequences on the Titu Maiorescu government. The memories regarding the Balkan War from 1913 have continued to influence the public opinion North and South of Danube long after the Bucharest Peace Treaty and Bulgaria became a revisionist voice. The frustration which the Bulgarians felt after 1913 was more intense than the Romanians’ content. In Bucharest the press didn’t have to explain a failure. The political leaders were mainly preoccupied with the peace repercussions. Romania behaves defensively on the imagistic level while Bulgaria behaves offensively.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 89-96
No. of Pages: 8
Keywords: , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: This article aims to present the steps that European diplomacy has undertaken towards signing the Kellogg-Briand Pact and the position of Romania to the signing of the Pact. It emphasizes the role played by Romania, through its diplomats, in designing the Pact that made war of aggression illegal. The Kellogg-Briand Pact sprang from the desire of building a collective security system, but worldwide, marking a critical moment in drive towards peaceful diplomacy. The article emphasizes that the nations which took the initiative of signing the treaty of renunciation of war for the regulation of disputes between states were not as interested in its principles as the small and medium states, Romania included. It also shows that at the origin of the Pact of Paris stood divergent interests, each of the signatory state following their own purposes. Romania’s representative to Geneva and then foreign minister, Nicolae Titulescu, defined quite clearly Romania’s interest in signing this pact, understanding both its advantages and limitations. Being one of the states that had acceded to this Pact from the desire to ensure security and maintain world peace, Romania has reserved, however, the right of self-defense of national territory in case of unprovoked aggression. The article concludes that the lack of requirements to defend the peace against aggression made that the pact remain only a declaratory document.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 97-110
No. of Pages: 14
Keywords: , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: This paper analyzes the Finnish diplomacy and media have perceived Romania’s attempts to extricate herself from the war on Nazi Germany’s side. The significance of such a research rests with the fact that, as Romania, Finland also envisaged a way to withdraw from war and any Romanian step taken to that effect, as the paper demonstrates, was attentively monitored by Finnish decision-makers. Moreover, according to an agreement the two countries had concluded back in July 1941, they exchanged information about sensitive issues regarding their foreign and security policies and therefore the quality of knowledge of each other’s intentions was valuable. Sometimes, information affecting the most important interests of the other country could be exchanged, as this paper describes.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 111-114
No. of Pages: 4
Keywords: , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The outcome of a Ph.D. research undertaken at Valahia University of Târgovişte and at its “Grigore Gafencu” Research Center for the History of International Relations and successfully completed in 2008, the book represents an original approach upon a theme barely investigated in earlier studies: Romania’s foreign policy in the years following the Soviet takeover, with a focus on the first half of the 1950s. The author is a young researcher who has systematically investigated the Romanian archives, a fact which permitted him to come up with fresh theories checked with the decision-makers own thoughts and perspectives as they result from first hand documents and various other materials. The aim of the research was to analyze the reasons and the mechanisms of Romania’s subordination to Soviet Union and the regime’s domestic and external goals responsible for the external course it followed and for the changes in its foreign policy it acknowledged with the passing of time.
Open access on CEEOL: YES



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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 115-116
No. of Pages: 2
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The book gathers contributions of a team of researchers who have benefited from the declassification of some parts of the ex-communist states archives. The diversity of their scientific expertise ensures the approach of communism not only from a historical perspective. The coordinator, Stephane Courtois, is an expert in this field and keeps a closed contact with the ex-communist countries. He acts in Romania as a rector of Sighet School and he also deals with the problems of the Romanian scientific research in the field of communist. As a result of his and his team research, several dimensions of communism were investigated: the political, economical, cultural and social dimension.
Open access on CEEOL: YES



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Language: French
Subject(s): Jewish studies
Page Range: 117-118
No. of Pages: 2
Keywords: , ,
Summary/Abstract: The problem of minorities in Romania during the installation of the communist regime has preoccupied many historians. Liviu Rotman is one of the most experienced specialists in the field of the history of Jews in Romania, he was especially concerned about the socio-professional and educational this minority. The volume The Jews of Romania during the Communist period 1944-1965 is well constructed, dense data and facts from that era.
Open access on CEEOL: YES



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Language: English
Subject(s): Politics / Political Sciences
Page Range: 119-120
No. of Pages: 2
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: TThe outcome of a project financed by the European Parliament (Grant Agreement no. COMM/2009/04/0033) and of the cooperation between the “Ioan Gură de Aur” Theological Seminary, Valahia University of Târgovişte and the Archbishopric of Târgovişte, the conference entitled “The youth as an interface between the European Parliament and European citizens: how the youth can design tomorrow’s Europe?” was opened under the auspices of the ideas expressed by the European Commission in December 1998 which captures the genesis, morphology and heraldry of European citizenship: “Citizenship with a European dimension is anchored in the joint creation of a voluntary community of peoples with different cultures and different traditions – creating a democratic society that has learned to embrace diversity with sincerity as a positive opportunity, a society of openness and solidarity for all and each of us”.
Open access on CEEOL: YES



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