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Issue No. 11 (2009) Archives – Valahian Journal of Historical Studies
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Issue No. 11 (2009)


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 5-7
No. of Pages: 3
Keywords: , ,
Summary/Abstract: With the advent of modernization, secularization and nationalism, kinship started to play an important role in the way a nation constructs its foreign policy ideology and, whenever applicable, in the way this ideology is translated into practice. There is no, however, a direct relations between the inputs and outcomes of theorizing and practicing kinship in the foreign policy of a given country. Other stronger inputs such as the international system and its constrains, security dilemmas, regional and international priorities, domestic needs, and demagogy are but a few factors that can strongly influence the outcomes. This issue of VJHS approaches, in the first part, the sea of opportunities and failures that kinship based bilateral relations encountered in the relations between the neo-Latin countries during the 19th and 20th centuries.
Open access on CEEOL: YES



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Language: French
Subject(s): Cultural history
Page Range: 9-13
No. of Pages: 5
Keywords: , , , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: For Anna de Noailles and Marthe Bibesco, Romanian writers of French expression, Napoleon was one of the main characters of the French history, a fascinating and complex, a veritable myth. Noailles, as poet, draws an attractive portrait of the emperor who incarnated, in her conception, the very idea of honor and glory of which she had been fascinated throughout her life. Bibesco saw in him not just a mythical and legendary character but also a possible ancestor of her husband’s, according to the beautiful legend transmitted by her mother-in-law. The two writers, who were themselves fond of the idea of European Union, considered Napoleon to be a prophet and a visionary dreaming to create a united Europe.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Language: French
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 15-34
No. of Pages: 20
Keywords: , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The reopening of the Oriental Crisis, with the launching of the Crimean War (1853-1856), brought the Romanian Principalities situation on the close-up of the European attention. The Peace Congress from Paris (1856), besides the fact that discussed the Romanian Principalities situation as a component of the Oriental Crisis solution, it revealed a new disposal in the alliance system initiated during the Crimean War. Between 1856 and 1859, the Principalities Unification remained in the attention of the European diplomacy and public opinion. France and its Emperor Napoleon III, supported it on the European stage, as a terminus objective of his policy in South-East Europe. The gratitude of the Romanians, officially expressed by Prince Alexandru Ioan Cuza, was real and strong, and Napoleon III its first beneficiary. The Unification of the Romanian Principalities appeared as his first great act in applying the nationalities principle. In the same time, France was the European power that constantly supported the Union and the Romanian Nation elected in the period 1859-1866. It represented the most significant moral and material support in the edification process of the modern Romanian national state. At the beginning of the year 1866, the Oriental politics of France was still effective and consistent. Carol I was obviously more decided to do some independence gestures, even though his enthroning in Romania had the support of Napoleon III. The rising of Prussia on the European stage in 1866 reoriented the French policy toward Austria. At the beginning of the year 1867, the attitude of the unfavorable circles from Paris was visible, and with the year 1868, the crisis in the relations with France reached its culminant point. The estrangement of France from Romania constituted a fact, while the Romanians were finding out, in 1867, that in his orientation toward Austria, Napoleon III, in order to counterbalance Prussia’s influence, offered at the meeting from Salzburg the United Principalities (Romania) to Austro-Hungary, as compensation for strengthening the alliance with Vienna. Due to prudence, as long as the European situation remained mostly unchanged, the efforts and the concessions of the Romanian officials to maintain the good relations with France, did not have the expected results. At the beginning of 1870, the French policy became unpredictable. It proved to be rather inactive after 1871 in Orient. In Romania’s case, it was full of reproaches, suspicions, because Paris did not pursued future objectives and stakes anymore. Its own internal problems, but also the influences of Austro-Hungary, Russia and Germany on external plan, regarding Orient until 1878, encouraged France to abandon the Oriental zone, and implicitly the former interests regarding Romania.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 36-52
No. of Pages: 17
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The reopening of the Eastern crisis has caused a new configuration in the traditional relations between Romania and Italy. The establishment of diplomatic relations at legation level between Rome and Bucharest (December 1878) and the signature of a Consular Convention and an Extradition Convention (August 1880) created the legal framework for progressing the relations between the two states. In the context of the Triple Alliance, the joining of Italy to the Austro-Romanian Treaty of October 1883 appears as a large project designed to increase the military cooperation between the allies through naval and military conventions. Italy was thus involved politically and militarily in an area where it had no direct interest to the exclusive advantages in the Austria-Hungary, Romania and Germany. In this way, the Agreement and its provisions constituted a burden on Italy for as long as this country remained tied to this political-military system. The alliance between Italy and Romania will bring a certain intimacy in the relationship between the two governments, at times well-defined (the Balkan question, relations with Austria-Hungary and Russia), but will also create some moments of tension, as it was the case with the violent campaign staged by the Romanian press against Italy in 1912, during the Italo-Turkish war.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Language: Italian
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 54-65
No. of Pages: 12
Keywords: , , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: This article analysis the attitude of Romania during the years 1935-1936 when Italy prepared and then unleashed the war against Ethiopia and the effects of this attitude upon the bilateral relations between Romania and Italy. It also discloses the position of the League of Nations during and after the war between Italy and Ethiopia. It demonstrates the failure of the policy of peace and collective security promoted by status quo states of the League of Nations, including Romania.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 67-78
No. of Pages: 12
Keywords: , , , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The new independent status of the American colonies following their war with England created, after 1783 the need for settling an American trade of its own, exploring for new opportunities and markets. The Mediterranean Sea was one of these new trade directions for the young American trade and Levant, the Central and South-Eastern Europe were to be discovered as potentially promising regions for expanding this trade. The first trade exchanges, the merchandises traded and the official contacts aiming at encouraging these exchanges as far as to the Black Sea and Danube region were all significant for the specific character of this new trade in the area under observation. By 1850 one can say that the American trade was already an obvious reality in the region and seemed to find its own path, indicating enough vigor to expand even further.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 79-113
No. of Pages: 35
Keywords: , , , , , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: As a new Russian-Turkish war broke out in 1877, the Romanian political objective of winning the state independence, following a realistic evaluation of the general European conditions, was to be redirected towards a close cooperation with Russia. The Romanian disposition to follow this road, in spite of old anti- Russian feelings, was a significant and a radical political option. Embarking such a relation with Russia, the Romanian politicians experienced both the success of achieving independence and the bitter disappointment of losing a part of the Romania’s national territory, but, on the whole, the result of the war was a major success, given circumstances which could not be mastered in their unpredictable change.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 115-128
No. of Pages: 14
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: This article approaches the effects of the abrupt diplomatic changes of 1939 upon the relations between two East-Central European mid-sized nations, Poland and Romania, and upon their international behaviour. Allies starting with 1921 but choosing a different foreign policy line in the 1930s, the two countries were deeply affected by the August 1939 German-Soviet Pact which destroyed the European equilibrium. Realist and humanitarian, the Romanian foreign policy opted for neutrality when the German-Polish war broke out, but helped the Polish as much as the rules of neutrality allowed it. Because the Romanian- Polish alliance did not ask for more and Romania could not do more in 1939, this was the best Polish could realistically ask from the Romanian Kingdom.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 129-138
No. of Pages: 10
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The situation of Romania, ally of the Axis and participant in the invasion of Soviet Union of June 22, 1941, inspired many analyses and projects from the Allies camp. Soviet Union issued the first projects at a time when the result of war was far from being decided. From December, 1941, Stalin asked for the restoration of border of June 28, 1941, for right to set up military bases in Romania and the annexation of the Danube Delta. For Great Britain, Romania was taken in consideration only in the context of a possible Balkan military operation, closely linked to the position of Turkey. As regards the United States, which were hostile, from the beginning, to such deployment, the perception regarding Romania did not differ much from the British, but they drew attention to the perspectives of the Soviet presence in Central Europe and the need to make something to prevent such situation develop.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 139-149
No. of Pages: 11
Keywords: , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: Traian Brăileanu (1882-1947) was professor at the University of Cernăuţi during the interwar period. With studies in Cernăuţi and Vienna, he was an important representative of Rumanian sociology. In 1919, he returned to Cernăuţi, where he became the holder of the Department of Ethics, Sociology and Policy chair. After a tour through various political parties, he entered at the end of the 1920s in the Legionary Movement. He encouraged the Romanian students to be actively involved in this movement by the magazines he sponsored “Iconar” and “Însemnări sociologice”, connected to the “Generation of 1922”. Brăileanu was an open partisan of the camps of work which he considered a means of educating the new man. Opinion leader in the Legionary Movement and an important pawn on the political scene in the 1930s, Brăileanu was considered an ideologist of the Iron Guard. After the authoritarian regime of Charles II, for the professor and the sociologist of Cernăuţi, the period September 1940 – January 1941 represented the climax of his political career. Unfortunately, this coincided with one of the most difficult moments in the history of Romania and with a black page of its existence – the National-Legionary State. Detained after January 23, 1941, released and again arrested, he was condemned to 20 years of prison and his fortune was confiscated; in 1946, he was imprisoned in Aiud by the Communists, where he died on October 3, 1947.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 151-157
No. of Pages: 7
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The article is based on recent documentary information, most of the sources coming from the Archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Bucharest) and from the Romanian Military Archives (Pitesti). Beginning with the 1920’s, Romania signed a series of treaties with the European states which foresaw, among others, the appointment of military attachés to the diplomatic mission abroad. An important role in achieving the military targets decided by Romania during the interwar period was the close connection among Paris, London and Bucharest. This is why personalities such a Radu R. Rosetti, Nicolae Radescu, Constantin Sanatescu were assigned as military attaché at diplomatic missions. Among these great personalities was Ion Antonescu, a military attaché first in Paris from 30 August 1922, then in London from 1 July 1923 and in Brussells (1923-1926). He was assigned in this function because he “had remarkable features of character, determination and initiative”.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Language: French
Subject(s): Politics / Political Sciences
Page Range: 159-174
No. of Pages: 16
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: Since the fall of communism, Bulgaria managed to consolidate a democratic political system, with a stable parliament, an active civil society and media free from political influence. A series of presidential, parliamentary and local elections took place in this period; these elections were free, correct and without major problems. Considerable progresses have been made in applying the principles of the rule of law, but there are still many efforts to be made in this direction. The main goal of this article is to highlight Bulgaria’s way of facing transition and overcoming this complex process. In addition to that, this analysis emphasizes some aspects of this country’s recent political evolutions, with an accent on the electoral process, which speeded the acquirement of a much desired statute: consolidated democracy.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 175-187
No. of Pages: 13
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: This article aims to show the outstanding role played by the international organizations in the early years of the Romanian-Canadian relations, especially in the diplomatic field but also in the economic and cultural ones. The two countries, placed after The Second World War in different ideological areas were in many occasions aware that they had many common interests on international policy. But to reach this level of proficiency Romania and Canada needed a number of tools that could be supported by the two superpowers. Therefore the international organizations became these tools and among them have distinguished the United Nations with its series of committees, bodies and programs, and the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 189-198
No. of Pages: 10
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: In this article we shall concentrate on the main theme namely that after the campaign of Alexander the Great, in spite of the obstacles, the relations between the West and the East were almost uninterrupted, even if sometimes the intensity was lower. Clearly, the most suitable stage of Indic studies emergence is closely connected with the presence of British in India. Because of them, many valuable manuscripts have been collected and many books about religion, mythology or Indian laws have appeared. In the second part, this paper is searching for an answer to some questions regarding the Romanian’s interest in knowing India and also presenting the relation between India and the West in the present days.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Language: Italian
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 199
No. of Pages: 1
Keywords:
Summary/Abstract:
Open access on CEEOL: YES



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