Issue No. 07-08 (2007)


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 5-6
No. of Pages: 2
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: Valahian Journal of Historical Studies recalls in these issues some of the challenges this region have come across with during the 20th and the beginning of 21st centuries: ethnic and territorial disputes, ideological subordination and underdevelopment, control over its own geo-strategic resources exerted by the great powers.
Open access on CEEOL: YES



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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 7-16
No. of Pages: 10
Keywords: , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: After the Paris Peace Conference sanctioned the new political and state realities in Central Europe, Hungary embarked upon a perilous program aimed to “revise” the provisions laid down by the Trianon Peace Treaty (4 June 1920) and to restore the medieval borders of the “St. Stephen’s Crown”. Revisionism came out not only as a foreign policy objective but also as a keynote of the social-political system in inter-war Hungary, active in all state activities, embraced by the quasi-totality of the Hungarian society and which gained precedence over any other commandments or principles, be them moral or whatever. Revisionism grew into a real national obsession which disregarded any critical approach.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 17-32
No. of Pages: 16
Keywords: , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The Communist regime embarked itself into a vast program of industrialization and development which reflects the principles of economic nationalism, as explained by Helga Schultz. The pursuit of economic and industrial development had been a constant political feature in Romania, after the foundation of the modern nation-state. Taking advantage of the authoritarian instruments available to it, the Communist regime continued this policy of state-led development. In its relations with other Socialist countries, Romania was guided by this project, as much as the political circumstances of the Soviet domination allowed it.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 33-40
No. of Pages: 8
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The Black Sea’ Straits have been for a long time one of the most important strategic places at the confluence between Asia Minor and Europe. This paper deals with Soviet demands to dominate the Straits in the aftermath of the Second World War and with the Turkish and Western Allies’ response to this project. The USSR embarked not only upon pretending the revision of the Montreux Convention but, even more threatening, advanced territorial pretensions against Turkey. This perhaps contributed significantly to the outbreak of the Cold War.
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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 41-49
No. of Pages: 9
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: This paper investigates Romania’s initiatives for cooperation at the Black Sea seen from the perspective of this country’s position in the Soviet sphere of influence. For fifteen years any Romanian initiatives in this respect came as responses to Soviet suggestions or demands. It was only when Romania detached to some extent from Soviet embracement that she could formulate more independent initiatives, but then it lacked any support from Moscow’s faithful vassals. In the meantime, the Soviet presence at the Black Sea took very concrete shapes, the Soviet Black Sea Fleet acquiring the right to harbor in Romanian waters.
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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 51-72
No. of Pages: 22
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: During the communist period, the relations between Romania and Hungary have been influenced or determined by their particular role within the communist East-European system, especially by their relations with the USSR. The main characteristic of these relations is their continuous evolution under the influence of the international context, on the one hand, and under the influence of their traditional problems, on the other hand. The year 1968 was a special moment in the Romanian-Hungarian relations, especially political relations. Different events, starting with the Meeting in Budapest and finishing with the Czech events, showed that the political relations between Hungary and Romania were becoming tenser. Despite this, the two parts tried to continue and develop the bilateral economic and cultural relations between them. But the influence of the politics over these aspects was very deep and often the political disagreements stopped any progresses. This article aims to detail the complex picture offered by this issue and to present the main characteristics of the Romanian-Hungarian bilateral relations during the year 1968, the main disputes, old or new, between the two socialist countries in their bilateral relations, their main problems of disagreement and the way in which the negotiations were held. Its purpose is not to repeat the well known positions of Romania and Hungary about the political events of the year 1968, but to connect these events and their consequences to the bilateral Romanian-Hungarian relations, judging the facts in the light offered by some new Romanian archive materials.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Language: French
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 73-92
No. of Pages: 20
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: Since early times, there have been many concepts used regarding Russia, meaning key-words and non conventional words; many of them have become real myths and have supported all the legends about the Russian spirit. Nowadays, Russia must be seen in a pragmatic and objective manner, by giving up the mystifying tendencies. The present study presents Russia in the Balkan political and economical context, as well as in many other contexts. The research focuses on the analysis of the way in which today Russia is perceived by the political personalities, by journalists and by the public on the whole. Russia’s status is being analyzed from a geopolitical and geo-strategic point of view, emphasizing also the relationship with Romania. All these aspects are essential in the configuration of a public opinion, a general one, as the world context is in a continuous change and has major consequences on the other states, especially on national issues.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 93-110
No. of Pages: 18
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The Romanian-Finnish interwar diplomatic relations tell the story of aims, projects, and some achievements but also of failures and short-sightedness. This was partly a reflection of the belief that decisive in a smaller state’s visions’ coming to life rested in its capacity to influence the chancelleries of the greater powers. Consequently, both Finland and Romania encouraged a foreign policy more active on the east-west than on the north-south axis. The fact that the two countries, regardless their geographic and cultural distance, shared the unenviable experience of neighbouring Soviet Russia upset from time to time, especially when instability prevailed in the region, this pattern. Some diplomats also played a role in influencing the development of the relationship between the two states. This paper elaborates on the role of interests and diplomats in the ups and downs of the Romanian-Finnish diplomatic relations after the Romanian and Finnish legations to Helsinki and Bucharest were closed in 1922-1923.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 111-120
No. of Pages: 1
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: Denmark’s security policy during the two great world wars can be characterised as a policy of adaptation vis-à-vis Germany. This policy included a sceptical attitude toward Danish military capability and a recognition of the limitations of small states. According to this interpretation, foreign policies, as well as defence policy, were subordinated to adaptation. The main problem for Denmark was to assure the compatibility of the two concepts of neutrality and collective security within the League of Nations. Denmark was conducting a very careful foreign policy trying to avoid anything that might cause displeasure in Germany and increase the danger of a German attack. Its policy at the League of Nations was greatly influenced by its position as a tiny neighbour of Germany. This explains why Denmark refused to participate in sanctions policy and avoided to condemn any German actions even in the case when its interests were deeply affected.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 121-137
No. of Pages: 17
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: Conceptualised by the German school of political studies in 1966, following a new period of crisis in the relations between East and West, the term referred to a certain type of domination of small states by the Great Powers, but, in fact, it referred to the efforts made by the URSS to gain influence in Europe by the same methods it had used in Finland. This paper explains the circumstances and the historical framework responsible for the post-war Finnish-Soviet relations, at the same time aiming at critically reassessing the significance and meaning of this concept.
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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 139-141
No. of Pages: 3
Keywords: , ,
Summary/Abstract: REVIEW. Alfred Crosby’s work investigates the biological origins and causes of European supremacy over the rest of the world. His book represents an insightful overlook through history, revealing the sources of European domination from a biological and ecologica
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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 143-145
No. of Pages: 3
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: REVIEW.After 1989 the number of the works dedicated to the Second World War grew, but their theme remained in the well known spectrum: the East Campaign, the Romanian-German or Romanian-Soviet relations, the moment 23rd of August, the negotiations for concluding an armistice, the role of the Romanian opposition etc. Mioara Anton takes again the subject of her doctorate thesis, having in view, as she said in the Introduction, the aim of recovering a less known and analyzed part of the war history, namely Romania’s official war propaganda.
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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 147-149
No. of Pages: 3
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: REVIEW: Peter Calvocoressi was a lecturer at Sussex University. He wrote „World Politics since 1945”, which is now at its 8th edition. He is considered one the most important contemporary historians. Polirom Publishing House published also some of his other works: “Break the lines. The Second World War and the post war Europe” (2000) and “Europe from Bismarck to Gorbachev”. Calvocoressi’s work is one of those extensive studies which evaluate the history of modern and contemporary Europe, from the last two centuries, tracking the line of the events that influenced the destiny of the continent. The main direction is given by the open or hidden conflicts between the great powers, from the two World Wars up to the Cold War. The book is structured on three sections.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 151-152
No. of Pages: 2
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: REVIEW: The volume published by historian Ion Calafeteanu, a leading specialist in the history of the Romanian diplomacy during the 20th century, contains a number of 186 documents with a special relevance to the understanding of the international relations after the Second World War. These documents are useful for both qualified and average users interested in the post-war international relations. Calafeteanu, the author of many studies and books approaching Grigore Gafencu’s political and diplomatic role. This paper aims to clarify the role played by the former foreign minister in the post-war diplomacy and the defense of Romania’s interests, albeit conducted from outside, by this diplomat.
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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 153-155
No. of Pages: 3
Keywords: , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: REVIEW: The score” of the Securitate. Directives, dispositions, instructions (1947-1987) is booked on the list of the works concerning the Securitate, published by the Romanian Council for Studying the Securitate Archives (CNSAS). This time, Silviu B. Moldovan, Cristina Anisescu and Mirela Matiu offer us the texts of some directives, dispositions and instructions, “texts of repression”, which justified the actions of the dominant group (Securitate agents, militiamen, party activists, investigators, public prosecutors, and, at the inferior limit, informers) and ideologically confirmed the indissoluble connection between the communist Party and the Securitate. All documents presented in this volume have had a secret and internal character, they have been addressed to the Securitate cadres with the aim to instruct them and to create the conditions which to make the repression possible.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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