Issue No. 05-06 (2006)


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 5-7
No. of Pages: 3
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: Two concepts have been brought forth and approached from different perspectives and angles in this issue of Valahian Journal of Historical Studies: Eastern Europe and the frontier. Throughout its history, the area known during the Cold War under the name of Eastern Europe has been indeed a frontier area, a peripheral region of confluence between Europe, European Russia, the Middle East and Northern Africa. Known as Central Europe, East-Central Europe, in-between Europe , the designation of the region changed following the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact and the imposition of the Soviet yoke to Eastern Europe. Moreover, the perceptions of the political geographers, historians, journalists, politicians in Western Europe and the United States depicted a region totally subjugated to Soviet Union with no will or possibility to pursue even a limited national program beyond the strict limits Moscow was imposing to this region.
Open access on CEEOL: YES



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Language: French
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 9-16
No. of Pages: 8
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The Romanian-French relations have acknowledged a vigorous development during the Modern Age. The Romanian nation was guided in promoting the ties with France by her national strategy directed towards achieving the national unity and independence. The Romanian-French relations have been intensified already during the 17th and the 18th centuries, but it was only during the first half of the 19th century that they became firmly established. A French consular office was created in 1798 in Bucharest and viceconsulship in Iassy. The Romanians have started to have the direct knowledge of France after 1821. Paris became a centre of cultural, politic and ideological formation for the Romanian elite. The French language became in the Romanian Principalities the language of the salons, the books of the French authors were translated into Romanian and enjoyed a large circulation and the French plays were staged in Bucharest and Iassy. The Romanian youth studying in Paris took part in the French 1848 revolution before returning back home to spread the French ideology. Conversely, the French society came into contact with the Romanian realities rather by observing the Romanians studying in France. The French politicians and diplomats enjoyed the access to the reports of the French consular agents dispatched in Bucharest and Iassy.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 9-16
No. of Pages: 8
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: In the second half of the 1930s, Romania was confronted with a complete failure of its security policy, traditionally aimed at preserving the territorial structure of Greater Romania, as it emerged from World War I. The inefficiency of the League of Nations combined with the absence of a strong support from the Western powers made way for Germany’s expansionist policy towards its neighbors. The Anschluss of 1938 was, for Romania, another proof of this failure and a warning for the war to come. This study focuses on Romania’s reaction to the Anschluss at military level and reveals the unprepared state of the Army for a possible confrontation with the revisionist forces in Europe.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 27-44
No. of Pages: 18
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The article aims at challenging the opinions overemphasizing the role of Yalta in constructing “Eastern Europe” in the way the public knew it after 1945/1948. This paper traces the roots of this mental and political construction back to 1939 and to the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact concluded on August 23rd. This paper is also searching for an answer to some questions regarding the constraints and opportunities facing the minor powers in a world dominated by great powers (be they clashing or cooperating with each other).
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 45-62
No. of Pages: 18
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: Probably Bulgaria is the most appropriate scenario to analyze the functioning of the Soviet style planning. Because it is here where in the most orthodox way, and regardless Bulgaria’s peculiarities, this system has been applied. The article examines the transformations that took place in the Bulgarian economy between 1944 and 1989 with the objective of analyzing the causes which led to the crisis of the planned economy. The process of economic development experienced in Bulgaria was accompanied by the verification of the intrinsic limits of the planning mechanism. Several intents of modification of the economic mechanism were introduced to allow the continuity of the process of growth. This work analyze to what extent these reforms constituted a real modification of the pattern of centralized planning and their inability to avoid the economic crisis. The intents of reforms of the economic mechanism toward the economic decentralization failed. All the reforms introduced can be described as conservative, keeping in mind that none of them supposed a real deviation from the centralized pattern. In any case, only an administrative decentralization that perfected the central control through the simplification of the system and the amplification of powers of the intermediate levels of the administrative structure took place.
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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 63-78
No. of Pages: 16
Keywords: , , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The National-Communist regime in Romania focused on two primary objectives: a modernization program meant to overcome underdevelopment by a new wave of industrialization and an independent position in the international affairs in order to gain domestic legitimacy and protection against the Soviet control. Ceauşescu’s regime developed an entire concept on the future of Europe, based on the economical cooperation and respect for sovereignty, with the intention to gain support for its major political goals. This study examines Ceauşescu’s concept of Europe and the way he used the non-alignment rhetoric to justify its purposes. “Europe” is an ideological instrument which served for asserting international independence and for granting easy access to technological and financial gateways towards development.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 79-98
No. of Pages: 20
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: History-politics constitute a wide research tradition that investigates the presence of history in contemporary society on different levels. It is an awareness of how history emerges in politics or in public discourse in the forms of taboos, myths, interpretations or argumentations referring to the past. The understanding of the past is inevitably influenced by the perceptions of contemporary society; hence, the image of the past is changing constantly with the circumstances and necessities of the present in any period of time. It is a social construction that manifests a deeply political relation between the past and present because the contact of different time-dimensions involves always interpretation, argumentation, manipulation and rhetoric. In this article, we shall concentrate on the aspects of this wide phenomenon including public discussions that aim, at one hand, to come to terms with the traumatic past, and to use the past for present political purposes. The ‘burden’ of the past can be seen indeed very concretely still today in the never-ending dispute over central concepts of the common past of Hungary and Romania.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 99-111
No. of Pages: 13
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: By the beginning of the 1960s, Romania gradually left the homogeneous camp of socialist countries and, as a consequence, the country would be isolated to some extent from the ‘fraternal’ countries. Therefore, Romania had to consolidate its relations with the Western states. On the other hand, Soviet Union would permanently seek and use all possible means to bring Romania back under obedience. It is here where our articles aims at challenging some assumptions and provide some fresh explanations on the Soviet-Romanian relations. While being beyond the aims of this article to provide a complete analysis of such a complex phenomenon, it however intends to reveal some new, interesting elements, indispensable to the analysis, and to raise some questions that need further research.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 113-117
No. of Pages: 5
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The 6th annual conference of the Aleksanteri Institute for Russian and East-European Studies took place in the favourable cadre created by the Finnish Presidency of the EU. Consequently, the conference enjoyed the support of the Finnish Ministry for Foreign Affairs and the presence of Dr Erkki Tuomioja, a historian by training and the Finnish titular of this portfolio. Markku Kangaspuro who has masterminded this conference underlined already in the opening words the significance of the identities and of the transformations they have undertaken at the turn of the new millennium for such important processes as the European construction and the European dialogue with other cultures and entities as well as the difficulties and disagreements in defining Europe as against “the other(s).”
Open access on CEEOL: YES



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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 119-122
No. of Pages: 4
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: REVIEW: Romania’s relations with Germany in the years preceding the Second World War are an important aspect of the Romanian history. Nevertheless, there has been little research on the Romanian policy towards Germany before the conflagration and the way the Romanian-German alliance was established. Rebecca Haynes offers a new perspective on the study of the Romanian-German relations in this period. The paper is the result of a laborious research based on the study of several archives documents and direct confessions. The author does not support the assertions of some historians according to which Romania was a victim of the Western Powers that sacrificed it in order to satisfy the German interests. In fact, the approaching to Germany was due to King Carol who was trying to get the German support against the revisionist powers.
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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 123-127
No. of Pages: 5
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: REVIEW: Hanna Smith is a research fellow at the Aleksanteri Institute of the University of Helsinki, Finland, specialized on Russian foreign policy after 1991. She is currently working on a PhD. thesis about Russia’s relations with the international organizations during the Chechen wars. In this volume published by the Kikimora Publications, Hanna Smith gathers a great number of specialists on Russian policy analyzing the present trends and orientations in the Russian foreign policy and investigating with great insight the causes and factors that act upon the process of foreign policy making in the Russian Federation nowadays.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 129-131
No. of Pages: 3
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: REVIEW: The book edited by Andrei Miroiu and Radu-Sebastian Ungureanu is beyond any doubt a useful manual for the students of international relations, a fresh field of study and research in Romania. It would most likely attract the interest of a wider public, especially of the students and scholars working in other fields of social and humanistic studies such as history, political geography, law and political sciences. If the study of international relations has a longer history in countries such as United Kingdom, United Statesor France dating back to the interwar period, in Romania it has emerged as an independent academic and research field only in the recent years. Consequently, this field needs such manuals introducing the key concepts, works and authors with which this field operates.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 133-135
No. of Pages: 3
Keywords: , ,
Summary/Abstract: REVIEW: The title of the work sounds probably too commercial for those who are interested in a more scientific approach on history and suspicious about “the sensational’ and “the novelty” which are present on a daily basis present in the newspapers. But “The lies of the Second World War” is a work which cannot be included into this category. The author has probably tried through its title to enlarge the circle of the readers beyond the smaller world of specialists. On the other hand, we have to admit that the lie always fascinated the human spirit, led empires, shaped societies and explained truths, as a tool of specialists from different fields: philosophers, generals, politicians and ideologists. Jean François Rèvel once said: “First among the forces which lead the world is the lie”. Sun Tsu also argued that: “The whole art of the war is based on cheat”, that is on lie. Politicians from historical times closer to ours thought that lie is a compulsory and not so unrespectable tool. Let’s take Talleyrand: “Word has been given to the people in order to hide their thoughts”. While V. I. Lenin: “To tell the truth is a bourgeois prejudice.”
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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 137-139
No. of Pages: 3
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: REVIEW: Already for many years Anssi Kullberg and Christian Jokinen have specialized on political Islam and its relationship with the surrounding environment of ideas and cultures. Both of them have extensively studied within the region and have followed the ongoing debates and the progress of the political ideas around the area. They have published the outcome of their research both in journals (especially in the Eurasian Politician, but also, to take Kullberg’s example, in the first two issues of this journal) and in mass-media (for instance, in the Finnish popular newspapers Turun Sanomat), giving a large publicity to their findings. Joining the Finnish Foreign Ministry in 2004, Kullberg was able to further his knowledge of Islam by being accredited in the Middle East, whereas Jokinen acquired an invaluable ground-knowledge as a member of the Finnish peace-keeping force in Afghanistan.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 141-143
No. of Pages: 3
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: REVIEW: The publishing house Polirom has focused two of its editorial programs on the recent history of Romania and, consequently, Ruxandra Cesereanu’s fits well into this editorial policy. Moreover, Cesereanu’s work is, in a certain sense, a reflection of everything that has been written about communism in Romania so far. The coordinator of the work confesses: “this volume presents and scans the nucleuses specific for the Communism manifestation and repression in Romania.” The themes tackled on this work envisage: the context of the development of communism in the 1940s, the collectivization, the penitentiary system, the security, the deportation, the torture and the persecution of the regime’s opponents and dissidents, the censorship, the social anticommunist movements from 1977 and 1987, the church during the communism, the personality cult.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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