Silviu Miloiu

Exploring the newborn in-between Europe: Romania, the Baltic States and the concept of collective security during the 1920’s


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 62-73
No. of Pages: 12
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: This paper investigates the position of Romania and the Baltic States in the framework of the interwar period debates about collective and regional cooperation.
Open access on CEEOL: YES



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Olli Vehvilainen, Finland in the Second World War. Between Germany and Russia, (translated by Gerard McAlester), Palgrave, 2002


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 123-125
No. of Pages: 3
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The book signed by the well-known Finnish historian Olli Vehvilainen, a distinguished professor at the University of Tampere, is a new introspection into the history of the Europe in-between. The timeframe covered by the book, the Second World War, and the fate of Finland during this meaningful period in the history of the mankind invites us to a reflection of how the region’s history has been shaped and re-shaped by the general European and World developments.
Open access on CEEOL: YES



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Mobilizing the European idea at Europe’s eastern frontier. The war propaganda of Romania and Finland as recorded in their bilateral relationship


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 67-75
No. of Pages: 9
Keywords: , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: This paper approaches the Finnish and Romanian propaganda about the meaning of their war against Soviet Unions between 1941 and 1944. Parallels and differnces are found and concepts are discussed in this paper which is based on Romanian and Finnish archival documents.
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Florin Anghel, Construirea sistemului „Cordon Sanitaire”. Relaţii româno-polone, 1919-1926, Cluj-Napoca, 2003


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 77-79
No. of Pages: 3
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: REVIEW: The relationship between Romania and Poland, two countries situated in the in-between Europe sharing in the 1920s many common aims and security concerns, has received in the Romanian historian Florin Anghel dissertation, recently published by Nereamia Napocae Publishing House, a much needed monograph concerning the period from the inception of the diplomatic relations in 1919 to the Treaty of Guarantee concluded between the two states in 1926.
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Introduction


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 5-7
No. of Pages: 3
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: Two concepts have been brought forth and approached from different perspectives and angles in this issue of Valahian Journal of Historical Studies: Eastern Europe and the frontier. Throughout its history, the area known during the Cold War under the name of Eastern Europe has been indeed a frontier area, a peripheral region of confluence between Europe, European Russia, the Middle East and Northern Africa. Known as Central Europe, East-Central Europe, in-between Europe , the designation of the region changed following the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact and the imposition of the Soviet yoke to Eastern Europe. Moreover, the perceptions of the political geographers, historians, journalists, politicians in Western Europe and the United States depicted a region totally subjugated to Soviet Union with no will or possibility to pursue even a limited national program beyond the strict limits Moscow was imposing to this region.
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Constructing Easternness and settling new frontiers in Europe: again about the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 27-44
No. of Pages: 18
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The article aims at challenging the opinions overemphasizing the role of Yalta in constructing “Eastern Europe” in the way the public knew it after 1945/1948. This paper traces the roots of this mental and political construction back to 1939 and to the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact concluded on August 23rd. This paper is also searching for an answer to some questions regarding the constraints and opportunities facing the minor powers in a world dominated by great powers (be they clashing or cooperating with each other).
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Constructing new identities in transforming Europe. Enlargement and integration: are they compatible? The 6th Aleksanteri Conference


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 113-117
No. of Pages: 5
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The 6th annual conference of the Aleksanteri Institute for Russian and East-European Studies took place in the favourable cadre created by the Finnish Presidency of the EU. Consequently, the conference enjoyed the support of the Finnish Ministry for Foreign Affairs and the presence of Dr Erkki Tuomioja, a historian by training and the Finnish titular of this portfolio. Markku Kangaspuro who has masterminded this conference underlined already in the opening words the significance of the identities and of the transformations they have undertaken at the turn of the new millennium for such important processes as the European construction and the European dialogue with other cultures and entities as well as the difficulties and disagreements in defining Europe as against “the other(s).”
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Andrei Miroiu, Radu-Sebastian Ungureanu, eds. Manual de Relaţii Internaţionale (Iaşi: Polirom, 2006), 352 pp.


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 129-131
No. of Pages: 3
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: REVIEW: The book edited by Andrei Miroiu and Radu-Sebastian Ungureanu is beyond any doubt a useful manual for the students of international relations, a fresh field of study and research in Romania. It would most likely attract the interest of a wider public, especially of the students and scholars working in other fields of social and humanistic studies such as history, political geography, law and political sciences. If the study of international relations has a longer history in countries such as United Kingdom, United Statesor France dating back to the interwar period, in Romania it has emerged as an independent academic and research field only in the recent years. Consequently, this field needs such manuals introducing the key concepts, works and authors with which this field operates.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Anssi Kullberg, Christian Jokinen, Separatismi ja islamismi. Kansallismieliset ja islamistiset liikkeet Euraasian Konflikteissa


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 137-139
No. of Pages: 3
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: REVIEW: Already for many years Anssi Kullberg and Christian Jokinen have specialized on political Islam and its relationship with the surrounding environment of ideas and cultures. Both of them have extensively studied within the region and have followed the ongoing debates and the progress of the political ideas around the area. They have published the outcome of their research both in journals (especially in the Eurasian Politician, but also, to take Kullberg’s example, in the first two issues of this journal) and in mass-media (for instance, in the Finnish popular newspapers Turun Sanomat), giving a large publicity to their findings. Joining the Finnish Foreign Ministry in 2004, Kullberg was able to further his knowledge of Islam by being accredited in the Middle East, whereas Jokinen acquired an invaluable ground-knowledge as a member of the Finnish peace-keeping force in Afghanistan.
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Introduction


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 5-6
No. of Pages: 2
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: Valahian Journal of Historical Studies recalls in these issues some of the challenges this region have come across with during the 20th and the beginning of 21st centuries: ethnic and territorial disputes, ideological subordination and underdevelopment, control over its own geo-strategic resources exerted by the great powers.
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An untold story: The Romanian-Finnish diplomatic bonds (1923-1939)


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 93-110
No. of Pages: 18
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The Romanian-Finnish interwar diplomatic relations tell the story of aims, projects, and some achievements but also of failures and short-sightedness. This was partly a reflection of the belief that decisive in a smaller state’s visions’ coming to life rested in its capacity to influence the chancelleries of the greater powers. Consequently, both Finland and Romania encouraged a foreign policy more active on the east-west than on the north-south axis. The fact that the two countries, regardless their geographic and cultural distance, shared the unenviable experience of neighbouring Soviet Russia upset from time to time, especially when instability prevailed in the region, this pattern. Some diplomats also played a role in influencing the development of the relationship between the two states. This paper elaborates on the role of interests and diplomats in the ups and downs of the Romanian-Finnish diplomatic relations after the Romanian and Finnish legations to Helsinki and Bucharest were closed in 1922-1923.
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The Black Sea`at the beginning of a new century: challenges and opportunities


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 5-8
No. of Pages: 4
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: When preparing the project for the ninth issue of Valahian Journal of Historical Studies at least five questions have been raised in a meeting of the editorial board: is the Black Sea a bridge between Europe and Asia?; does or can the Black Sea play a role in the redefinition of the national identity of the Black Sea nations, as a step towards a future regional identity?; does the Black Sea represent a political and psychological barrier between spaces of different historical background or is it a link able to create opportunities and regional solidarities?; can regional cooperation stimulate growth in the Black Sea basin?; can regional cooperation substitute a hegemonic power? Several other issues, including the potential of conflict between East and West in Georgia, the energy issue, the environmental situation at the Black Sea rim have been also considered sufficiently important to dedicate a whole issue to an area of almost a half million sq. km. connecting the Sea of Azov to the Aegean and Mediterranean and which, even by its modern name, seem to be prone to unfortunate things.
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Review: Iolanda Ţighiliu and Marian Cojoc, eds. Dobrudja: a cross cultural pool. A multi-ethnic space (Târgovişte: Cetatea de Scaun, 2007), 204 pp.


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 123-125
No. of Pages: 3
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: Coinciding with Romania’s integration in the European Union and with the EU’s search for combining regional, national and cross-border identities in creating one of the richest and most diverse of world’s cultural spaces, the publication of a book dedicated to Dobrudja and to its diverse ethnic landscape constitutes a fortunate accident. A peripheral part and ‘border zone of the Roman Empire, of the Byzantine Empire, of the feudal state of Wallachia, and of the Ottoman Empire’, to which I can add a springboard of the Ancient Greeks against the barbarians, who first entered in the history of mankind as a place of exile for Publius Ovidius Naso, this region, situated on the western coast of the Black Sea, is the cradle of a remarkably diverse civilization, a real Europe in miniature. To give an account of this diversity, we can quote a statistic of 1880, which found that out of the 157,114 Dobrudjan inhabitants, 51,915 were Romanians, 29,643 Bulgarians, 45,902 Muslims (Tartars and Turks), 17,708 Russians and Lipovens, 4,271 Greeks, 2,763 Germans, 1,135 Jews, 935 Armenians, 2,842 other nationalities. Moreover, the region is an important strategic region, commanding the control over the mouths of the Danube and the western Black Sea.
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Bridge building between far-off European nations: Romania and Finland duringthe 20th century


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 7-15
No. of Pages: 9
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The acquiring of the independence of the Finnish state and the aggrandizement of Romania (1917-1918) are part of the same process of nation and state-building which occurred during the last phase of the World War I when some of the main belligerents were weakened by the war and gradually capitulated while others emerged from the conflagration as winning powers. The previous nation-building process has also many parallels occurring predominantly over the latter half of the 19th century.
Although shaping their main cultural and domestic political patterns in a fairly different milieu, the fact remains that the two nations will soon find themselves caught in the middle of the same tussle of military giants that has characterized the World War II. The two countries reacted by trying to use to their best advantage this hopeless international environment, experiencing also a re-discovery of each other as two nations trashed to the history garbage by Hitler and Stalin, then to be resuscitated against each other by each of the two tyrants.
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Diverging their destinies. Romania, Finland and the September 1944 armistices


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 41-55
No. of Pages: 15
Keywords: , , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: This article investigates comparatively the roads of Romania and Finland to their September 1944 armistices with Soviet Union and their bilateral relations during these dramatic months. It also seeks to compare the two armistices and to explain the slightly different situations in which the two countries found themselves at the end of the war and especially after the armistices. An answer to the question whether the Romanian armistice has influenced in any way the Finnish decision-making for withdrawing from the war is also given.
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Neagu Udroiu, Zăpezi din miazănoapte. Ambasador în Finlanda (Bucureşti: Niculescu, 2007), 846 pp.


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 99-100
No. of Pages: 2
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: It is rare that a historian has the chance to have in his hands a document of such value for his research. It took decades to get Raoul Bossy, Notti Constantinide and George Duca’s diaries or testimonies published. And many other former Romanian diplomats had not the time or the opportunity to record or publish their vision about a part of Europe which is still mysterious to many Romanians. In Ambassador Neagu Udroiu’s case, his testimony is not only a treasure of information, but it is also fascinating and overwhelming. And this is not only because of its size of 846 pages. It is fascinating for the rare qualities of narrator of the author and for the profound knowledge of the North which emanates from the whole book. It is overwhelming because it provides the historian with the rare opportunity to find out what is beyond the material factors of history, it discloses thoughts, believes, assumptions, perceptions, feelings… By doing so, it grants the analyst the chance to more roundly assess what stays behind certain decisions of foreign policy, the more so as the brief diplomatic reports of nowadays are not comparable with the value and size of their interwar or World War II counterparts.
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Alexandru Popescu and others, Confluenţe româno-finlandeze. Trei secole de contacte, 85 de ani de relaţii diplomatice


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 105-106
No. of Pages: 2
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The years following the disruption of the Iron Curtain and the reunification of Europe have been propitious for investigating and sorting out the commonalities of the European nations, especially of those which for so long have been virtually separated from each other. This is also the case of Finland and Romania, countries which have continued a certain degree of relations at state level but very little at lower levels. This window of opportunity has provided also the study of the Finnish – Romanian relations with the tools for more thoroughly study of their past. Within this frame I would set the publication of the volume dedicated to the Finnish – Romanian confluences.
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Introduction: Under the spell of kinship: Romanian and the Latin countries in the modern age


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 5-7
No. of Pages: 3
Keywords: , ,
Summary/Abstract: With the advent of modernization, secularization and nationalism, kinship started to play an important role in the way a nation constructs its foreign policy ideology and, whenever applicable, in the way this ideology is translated into practice. There is no, however, a direct relations between the inputs and outcomes of theorizing and practicing kinship in the foreign policy of a given country. Other stronger inputs such as the international system and its constrains, security dilemmas, regional and international priorities, domestic needs, and demagogy are but a few factors that can strongly influence the outcomes. This issue of VJHS approaches, in the first part, the sea of opportunities and failures that kinship based bilateral relations encountered in the relations between the neo-Latin countries during the 19th and 20th centuries.
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Introduction


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 5-6
No. of Pages: 2
Keywords: , , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The introduction presents the two parts of this issue: the first half is dedicated to the Communist regimes’ history and especially to their debacle and consequences and the second half approaches Romania’s position in the international relations in the first half of the 20th century.
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Romania’s peace feelers (March 1943 – April 1944): views from Helsinki


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 97-110
No. of Pages: 14
Keywords: , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: This paper analyzes the Finnish diplomacy and media have perceived Romania’s attempts to extricate herself from the war on Nazi Germany’s side. The significance of such a research rests with the fact that, as Romania, Finland also envisaged a way to withdraw from war and any Romanian step taken to that effect, as the paper demonstrates, was attentively monitored by Finnish decision-makers. Moreover, according to an agreement the two countries had concluded back in July 1941, they exchanged information about sensitive issues regarding their foreign and security policies and therefore the quality of knowledge of each other’s intentions was valuable. Sometimes, information affecting the most important interests of the other country could be exchanged, as this paper describes.
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Cezar Stanciu, Devotaţi Kremlinului. Alinierea politicii externe româneşti la cea sovietică în anii ‘50


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 111-114
No. of Pages: 4
Keywords: , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The outcome of a Ph.D. research undertaken at Valahia University of Târgovişte and at its “Grigore Gafencu” Research Center for the History of International Relations and successfully completed in 2008, the book represents an original approach upon a theme barely investigated in earlier studies: Romania’s foreign policy in the years following the Soviet takeover, with a focus on the first half of the 1950s. The author is a young researcher who has systematically investigated the Romanian archives, a fact which permitted him to come up with fresh theories checked with the decision-makers own thoughts and perspectives as they result from first hand documents and various other materials. The aim of the research was to analyze the reasons and the mechanisms of Romania’s subordination to Soviet Union and the regime’s domestic and external goals responsible for the external course it followed and for the changes in its foreign policy it acknowledged with the passing of time.
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The youth as an interface between the European Parliament and European citizens: how the youth can design tomorrow’s Europe?


Language: English
Subject(s): Politics / Political Sciences
Page Range: 119-120
No. of Pages: 2
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: TThe outcome of a project financed by the European Parliament (Grant Agreement no. COMM/2009/04/0033) and of the cooperation between the “Ioan Gură de Aur” Theological Seminary, Valahia University of Târgovişte and the Archbishopric of Târgovişte, the conference entitled “The youth as an interface between the European Parliament and European citizens: how the youth can design tomorrow’s Europe?” was opened under the auspices of the ideas expressed by the European Commission in December 1998 which captures the genesis, morphology and heraldry of European citizenship: “Citizenship with a European dimension is anchored in the joint creation of a voluntary community of peoples with different cultures and different traditions – creating a democratic society that has learned to embrace diversity with sincerity as a positive opportunity, a society of openness and solidarity for all and each of us”.
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War, diplomacy and propaganda: an introduction


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 5-8
No. of Pages: 4
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: This aim behind this issue of VJHS was to improve our knowledge of the multidimensional relations which have existed between war, diplomacy and propaganda during the 19th to the 21st centuries, i.e. the patterns of change, the depth and breadth of means and aims. The fact that a new look into this topic was necessary is proven by the multifarious approaches of the contributors in terms of methodology, sources and topics. We hope that these goals have been at least partly achieved and that by the articles integrated in our pages will meet some of the expectations of the interested readership.
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Richard J. Evans, The Third Reich at War. How the Nazis led Germany from conquest to disaster


Language: English
Subject(s): Review
Page Range: 293-294
No. of Pages: 2
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The least that can be said about this volume is that it is thoroughly documented and comprehensive. In fact, in my opinion, this is the most valuable and time enduring synthesis of WWII German history and an outstanding literary achievement recalling in many of its pages the biting prose of Curzio Malaparte.
Open access on CEEOL: YES



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Christi Scott Bartman, Lawfare. Use of the Definition of Aggressive War by the Soviet and Russian Federation Governments


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 295-296
No. of Pages: 2
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The book contains a number of 384 letters of which, as the author confesses, the titles from the beginning and the end of the epistles are missing, titles which would have given more value to the book. One can find in this book letters to the members of the Hohenzollern family members, especially to his father, Karl Anton (until 1885 when the latter died), to his sister Mary of Flanders (until her death in 1912), to his brothers Friedrich (passed away in 1904) and Leopold (dead in 1905), and also to the Queen Elisabeth.
Open access on CEEOL: YES



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Homage to Professor Ion Calafeteanu


Language: English
Subject(s): Cultural Essay, Political Essay, Societal Essay
Page Range: 299-300
No. of Pages: 2
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: Researcher, professor, diplomat, editor, „Jean Monnet” Chair, Ion Calafeteanu has proven throughout his career the erudition, rigor, equilibrium, nuanced approach and acuteness specific to the research fields in which he has performed: the history of international relations and Romania’s foreign policy. His lectures of Universal and Romanian Contemporary History, Romania in the International Relations during the 20th Century and The Totalitarian Regimes have represented for those who have followed them real laboratories of training in those areas. The width of horizons opened to his students, the depth and up-to-dateness of interpretations, the scientific authority, the professionalism and the empathy he conveys to his audience are responsible for the amphitheatres being always full during his lectures. Distinguished, full of intellectual verve, enjoying the pleasure of dialogue, exchange of views and fine irony, the professor transmits complex human qualities which win many of his students, prompting them to ask him coordinate their undergraduate work, master’s thesis or doctorate dissertations.
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Internal and Transborder Migration: Recent History and Today’s Challenges


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 7-9
No. of Pages: 3
Keywords: ,
Summary/Abstract: Today, the flow of emigration is mainly from the developing to the developed countries (South – North migration). In this context notions such as brain drain have been invented in order to encompass the situation of the developing countries that lose skilled working force to the developed nations. Inside the developed nations, too, there are strong complains against immigration which, as the argument goes, affects the traditional values and wellbeing of society. The internal migration, too, is often accused of hindering the development of underdeveloped areas to the advantage of the better-off big cities. In the past, too, the internal migration was driven by the advent of modernity, industrialization, transport revolution, nationalism, ideologies, environment, world wars and world tourism.
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The Baltic escape from hell. The Nansen office and the Romanian POWs (1919-1921)


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 65-82
No. of Pages: 18
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: This paper investigates the role of the Nansen office in the hugely difficult task of repatriating the POWs from a Russia marred by the immense destructions caused by the Great War, the Civil War and the Bolshevik regime. The article focuses on the safeguarding of the life of at least 18,000 Romanians by the Nansen office, especially through the Baltic Sea “avenue”. The wavering relations between the Nansen office and the Romanian Government that has refused to allow the opening of a new salvation route for the POWs through the Danube and has postponed for long the application for funds thus creating big troubles to the former is also approached. The article concludes that the survivors of this ordeal may have been taught the best lessen about multi-ethnicity, tolerance, compassion and humanitarianism.
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Keith Hitchins, Ionel Brătianu: Romania (London: Haus Publishing, 2011)


Language: English
Subject(s): Review
Page Range: 179-181
No. of Pages: 3
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: Except for some minor mistakes (Béla Kun was the éminence grise and commissar of the Hungarian left-wing government of 1919 but not the Prime Minister) the whole enterprise of the author is well documented and balanced, standing out as perhaps the best synthetic approach on Ionel Brătianu’s role in Romanian politics. One can only hope that a Romanian edition of the book is already in sight.
Open access on CEEOL: YES



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Kari Alenius, Compromise solutions through careful considerations. The development of national minorities in Germany, 1918-1919


Language: English
Subject(s): Review
Page Range: 189-191
No. of Pages: 3
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The book bearing the signature of Kari Alenius stands out as the most remarkable monograph analyzing the circumstances and the mental and legal framework behind the elevation of the status of minorities in Germany and its lands at the end of First World War and beginning of the interwar period. The soundness of methods, the fineness of analysis, the depth of research and the attention paid to details turns it into an example of excellence in research and a guide for future studies on similar topics.
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Introduction


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 5-9
No. of Pages: 4
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: When we launched the call for an issue dedicated to the Balkans and the dynamics of its modern developments we did not expect to receive such a large number of manuscripts. In the end, we decided to dedicate two issues of the journal to this topic and to integrate them into a single review. The issues tackled in these articles deal mostly with contemporary aspects such as energy security in the Balkan region (Mehmet Efe Biresselioglu), extremism as an intelligence problem (Chris Deliso), post-communist Bulgaria’s political discourse (Rossen Vassiliev), the development of the Romanian civil society (Cristina Spinei).
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