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Elena Dragomir, Author at Valahian Journal of Historical Studies
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Elena Dragomir

The propagation of the European ideas. The literature and the birth of the Finnish nation in the first half of the 19th century


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 23-35
No. of Pages: 13
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: Maybe Finland is the clearest example that nations are not born. People have the same nationality only and only if they share the same culture, especially if they recognize one another as belonging to the same community, to the same nation. This article approaches the way in which an idea spreads through literature to the people, contributing to the “birth” of the Finnish nation.
Open access on CEEOL: YES



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Katalin Miklossy, Manouvres of National Interest-Internationalism and nationalism in the emerging Kadarist criticism of Romania,1968-1972


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 81-83
No. of Pages: 3
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: REVIEW: Katalin Miklossy is a researcher at the University of Helsinki since 1998. Her field of research is the contemporary political history of East-Central Europe. Conceived as a doctoral thesis, her work is a confessed analysis of the phenomenon called by the 1990s media ‘the new nationalism’, a typical phenomenon for the post communist countries. Nationalism and the ‘present ethnic conflict’, Katalin Miklossy acknowledges, cannot be understood without the identification of the roots of this phenomenon, which, in her opinion, appeared in the middle of the socialist era on the basis laid by Romanian and Hungarian political leaders. The book is also an attempt to describe and analyze the impact of the Hungarians’ anti-Romanian attitude on the bilateral relations.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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The art of compromise in diplomacy. A case study: the talks between Ceauşescu and Brezhnev during the Warsaw Treaty Organization Political Committee


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 99-111
No. of Pages: 13
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: By the beginning of the 1960s, Romania gradually left the homogeneous camp of socialist countries and, as a consequence, the country would be isolated to some extent from the ‘fraternal’ countries. Therefore, Romania had to consolidate its relations with the Western states. On the other hand, Soviet Union would permanently seek and use all possible means to bring Romania back under obedience. It is here where our articles aims at challenging some assumptions and provide some fresh explanations on the Soviet-Romanian relations. While being beyond the aims of this article to provide a complete analysis of such a complex phenomenon, it however intends to reveal some new, interesting elements, indispensable to the analysis, and to raise some questions that need further research.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Philippe Faverjon, Minciunile celui de-al doilea război mondial (Bucureşti: Pro, 2006).


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 133-135
No. of Pages: 3
Keywords: , ,
Summary/Abstract: REVIEW: The title of the work sounds probably too commercial for those who are interested in a more scientific approach on history and suspicious about “the sensational’ and “the novelty” which are present on a daily basis present in the newspapers. But “The lies of the Second World War” is a work which cannot be included into this category. The author has probably tried through its title to enlarge the circle of the readers beyond the smaller world of specialists. On the other hand, we have to admit that the lie always fascinated the human spirit, led empires, shaped societies and explained truths, as a tool of specialists from different fields: philosophers, generals, politicians and ideologists. Jean François Rèvel once said: “First among the forces which lead the world is the lie”. Sun Tsu also argued that: “The whole art of the war is based on cheat”, that is on lie. Politicians from historical times closer to ours thought that lie is a compulsory and not so unrespectable tool. Let’s take Talleyrand: “Word has been given to the people in order to hide their thoughts”. While V. I. Lenin: “To tell the truth is a bourgeois prejudice.”
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Ruxandra Cesereanu, Comunism şi represiune. Istoria tematică a unui fratricid naţional (Iaşi: Polirom, 2006).


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 141-143
No. of Pages: 3
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: REVIEW: The publishing house Polirom has focused two of its editorial programs on the recent history of Romania and, consequently, Ruxandra Cesereanu’s fits well into this editorial policy. Moreover, Cesereanu’s work is, in a certain sense, a reflection of everything that has been written about communism in Romania so far. The coordinator of the work confesses: “this volume presents and scans the nucleuses specific for the Communism manifestation and repression in Romania.” The themes tackled on this work envisage: the context of the development of communism in the 1940s, the collectivization, the penitentiary system, the security, the deportation, the torture and the persecution of the regime’s opponents and dissidents, the censorship, the social anticommunist movements from 1977 and 1987, the church during the communism, the personality cult.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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The Romanian-Hungarian bilateral relations during the long year 1968


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 51-72
No. of Pages: 22
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: During the communist period, the relations between Romania and Hungary have been influenced or determined by their particular role within the communist East-European system, especially by their relations with the USSR. The main characteristic of these relations is their continuous evolution under the influence of the international context, on the one hand, and under the influence of their traditional problems, on the other hand. The year 1968 was a special moment in the Romanian-Hungarian relations, especially political relations. Different events, starting with the Meeting in Budapest and finishing with the Czech events, showed that the political relations between Hungary and Romania were becoming tenser. Despite this, the two parts tried to continue and develop the bilateral economic and cultural relations between them. But the influence of the politics over these aspects was very deep and often the political disagreements stopped any progresses. This article aims to detail the complex picture offered by this issue and to present the main characteristics of the Romanian-Hungarian bilateral relations during the year 1968, the main disputes, old or new, between the two socialist countries in their bilateral relations, their main problems of disagreement and the way in which the negotiations were held. Its purpose is not to repeat the well known positions of Romania and Hungary about the political events of the year 1968, but to connect these events and their consequences to the bilateral Romanian-Hungarian relations, judging the facts in the light offered by some new Romanian archive materials.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Mioara Anton, Propagandă şi război, 1941-1944 (Bucureşti: Tritonic, 2007), 461 pp.


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 143-145
No. of Pages: 3
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: REVIEW.After 1989 the number of the works dedicated to the Second World War grew, but their theme remained in the well known spectrum: the East Campaign, the Romanian-German or Romanian-Soviet relations, the moment 23rd of August, the negotiations for concluding an armistice, the role of the Romanian opposition etc. Mioara Anton takes again the subject of her doctorate thesis, having in view, as she said in the Introduction, the aim of recovering a less known and analyzed part of the war history, namely Romania’s official war propaganda.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Consiliul Naţional pentru Studierea Arhivelor Securităţii, “Partiturile” Securităţii. Directive, ordine, instrucţiuni (Bucureşti:Nemira, 2007)


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 153-155
No. of Pages: 3
Keywords: , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: REVIEW: The score” of the Securitate. Directives, dispositions, instructions (1947-1987) is booked on the list of the works concerning the Securitate, published by the Romanian Council for Studying the Securitate Archives (CNSAS). This time, Silviu B. Moldovan, Cristina Anisescu and Mirela Matiu offer us the texts of some directives, dispositions and instructions, “texts of repression”, which justified the actions of the dominant group (Securitate agents, militiamen, party activists, investigators, public prosecutors, and, at the inferior limit, informers) and ideologically confirmed the indissoluble connection between the communist Party and the Securitate. All documents presented in this volume have had a secret and internal character, they have been addressed to the Securitate cadres with the aim to instruct them and to create the conditions which to make the repression possible.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Review: Thomas Weihe (ed.),The Black Sea between the EU and Russia. Security, energy, democracy, Odessa, Hamburg Körber-Stiftung 2007


Language: English
Subject(s): Politics / Political Sciences
Page Range: 115-117
No. of Pages: 3
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The 134th Bergedorf Round Table gathered in Odessa in June 23-25, 2006 and debated the topic of the dimensions of relation between Russia and the European Union in the Black Sea region. This book is the result of this conference and includes the edited and authorized version of participants’ contributions. The importance of the book consists in two main elements. On the one hand is the special significance of this theme, the Black Sea region between the EU and Russia, with its implication in security, energy and democracy fields. On the other hand is the quality of the contributors and contributions.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Reshaping foreign policy. Romania and Finland’s cases in the context of the CSCE’s opening. A comparative analysis


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 57-74
No. of Pages: 18
Keywords: , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: In the 1960s the West-East relations entered on the road of relaxation and détente. This is the context that permitted the organizing and opening of the CSCE. This is also the context that witnessed the foreign policy reorientation in Finland and Romania, later in Finland, earlier in Romania. Finland’s attitude towards the idea of opening a European security conference changed in time, while Romania had a clear position in supporting the CSCE quite from the beginning. This paper will summarize, comparatively, Romania and Finland’s doctrines of foreign policy for the period 1964-1973, interested in identifying and analyzing the foreign policy doctrines of Romania and Finland in the context of the CSCE preparation, the main question of the study being “what is the relations between Romania and Finland’s foreign policy doctrines and the opening of the CSCE”.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Federick Doeser, In search of security after the collapse of the Soviet Union Foreign policy change in Denmark, Finland and Sweden, 1988-1993


Language: English
Subject(s): Cultural history
Page Range: 107-109
No. of Pages: 3
Keywords: , ,
Summary/Abstract: The present work is Frederik Doeser’s academic dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Political Science at Stockholm University, publicly defended in June 2008. The purpose of the study, as the author affirms in the introduction, was to explain the evolution of the foreign policy of Denmark, Finland and Sweden with regard to western security cooperation between 1988 and 1993. The study analyzes the foreign policy change in these three states at the end of the Cold War with regard to the ongoing security cooperation within the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and Western European Union and to the proposal for security cooperation within the European Community and the emerging European Union.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Melvyn P. Leffler, For the Soul of Mankind. The United States, the Soviet Union and the Cold War (New York: Hill and Wang, 2007).


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 115-117
No. of Pages: 3
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: One of the new approaches in the Cold War studies is the importance given to the role of ideology and culture in analyzing the decision-making process, the term ideology being largely interpreted, not only in the sense of political ideology, but also in the sense of perceptions of threats, selection of friends, evaluation of opportunities, historical memories, “ideas, norms and values”, “world view”, what people think or what meaning people gave to different things. Leffler’s book is a part of the new Cold War history, bringing new data from the Soviet and American archives and in the same time a new and fresh approach and interpretation.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Explaining Communist Nostalgia in Romania: Some Empirical Evidence


Language: English
Subject(s): Politics / Political Sciences
Page Range: 7-28
No. of Pages: 22
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: At the end of 2009, twenty years after the fall of the communist regime, Romania seems on the verge of probably the deepest economic and social post-communist crisis. In times of crisis, masses tend to act in unexpected ways. They are either more easily allured by authoritarian discourses or more passive politically. In Romania they even show more nostalgia than usual for the recent communist past. Addressing the question of communist nostalgia in Romania, this article tackles questions such as: What is communist nostalgia in Romania? Who shows nostalgia for the communist past? Why does nostalgia for communism occur in Romania? How could this phenomenon be explained? The first part of the article briefly presents the previous interpretations about communist nostalgia in Romania during the last ten years. The second part advances new interpretations as to how Romanians’ communist nostalgia could be explained. The article finds previous explanations of communist nostalgia insufficient, and argues that the lack of a feeling of social welfare explains to a great extent this phenomenon. The conclusions are grounded in data – e.g. interviews with 27 persons and survey of 100 individuals.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Introduction


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 5-6
No. of Pages: 2
Keywords: , ,
Summary/Abstract: With this issue, Valahian Journal of Historical Studies brings forward once more the topic of Europe’s political, ideological, cultural, etc. artificial division between East and West, and argues that only the knowledge of the problem could be the base of solving the problem.
Open access on CEEOL: YES



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New explanations for Romania’s detachment from Moscow at the beginning of the 1960s


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 51-82
No. of Pages: 32
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: During the first years of the 1960s Romania defined its so-called independent foreign policy doctrine. Although the causes and motives of its ‘deviation’ from Moscow’s line have been largely studied, the findings of the previous research seem questionable in the light of the data offered by the new archive documents. While the previous studies used exclusively an objectivist approach and focused on the actors’ motives and the external pressures to explain the ‘deviation’, the newly available archive documents suggest that the decision was heavily influenced by the way the Romanian decision-makers perceived the external environment and identified threats. The paper is structured in two major parts. The first one presents in short the scholarship in this filed and reveals its methodological problems: the objectivist approach and the misuse of the archive sources. The second one, on the basis on the new archive documents and using a perceptual approach, presents some new explanations for the Romanian detachment. In analyzing the leaders’ perceptions, I use the so-called representational model, which assumes that inferences may be drawn directly from the subject’s statements. I focus on one attribute: perceptions of the Soviet Union’s aggressive intentions/threats against Romania. I conclude that at the beginning of the 1960s the Soviet Union was perceived in Bucharest as a direct and imminent threat to the Romanian state and, to some extent, to the communist ideology. These perceptions are highly responsible for the adoption of the so-called ‘Romanian independent foreign policy doctrine’ developed in the 1960s. The study brings into attentions the relevance the ideology (perceptions, ideas, beliefs, norms) had in the decision-making process during the Cold War. It also reveals the need for further research on the role of the Romanian communist leaders’ perceptions of the ‘others’ in adopting one decision or another.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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New volumes of documents illustrating the policy of the Romanian communist regime


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 88-90
No. of Pages: 3
Keywords:
Summary/Abstract:
Open access on CEEOL: NOT YET



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