Cezar Stanciu

In the shadow of Moscow: Romania and the Suez Crisis


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 784-89
No. of Pages: 6
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The Suez Crisis has posed to Romania a challenge as the country was forced to take sides in the context of the Cold War. Broadly speaking, the country joined in the Soviet propaganda against the capitalist perpatrators of acts of aggression and supported the Egyptian decisions.
Open access on CEEOL: YES



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La Roumanie et la France pendant la guerre froide, les difficultes d’un nouveau debut


Language: French
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 109-119
No. of Pages: 11
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: Après qu’on gouvernement communiste ait dirigé la Roumanie, le pays, occupé par l’Armée Rouge, dénonce ses relations avec les allié traditionnels du « camp impérialiste ». À son tour, la France, tributaire de son allié américain, a suivi fidèlement la politique de Washington durant les premières années de la Guerre Froide. Les priorités changent alors dans ces nouvelles circonstances : Paris est dans le « camp capitaliste » luttant contre l’expansion du communisme, et Bucarest se trouve dans la « camp socialiste » luttant contre la menace de l’impérialisme américain et occidental. C’est le stéréotype qui va modeler la perception réciproque concernant les deux pays durant la première décade de la Guerre Froide.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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The Quest for a Russian Identity in Europe in the late Nineteen Century


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 11-22
No. of Pages: 12
Keywords: , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: Political Russia was a superposed structure of Russian society which posed as the latter for at least two centuries, and which modelled itself following European standards, but without creating connections with its legitimizing source. To justify its expansionist claims, the tsarist empire invoked the Byzantine legacy which it was entitled to in its opinion, especially under the circumstances of the power void in eastern European space. This first approach of the relation with Europe, where Russia claimed its position, aroused different reactions in the Russian population: integrating ones on the part of the elite that wished to embrace the European civilization heritage, and rejection at the social level, where European values were difficult to grasp due to the incipient stage of political awareness in the Russian masses.
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Europeaness versus National-Communism: United Europe as a gateway to non-alignment for Ceauşescu’s régime


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 63-78
No. of Pages: 16
Keywords: , , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The National-Communist regime in Romania focused on two primary objectives: a modernization program meant to overcome underdevelopment by a new wave of industrialization and an independent position in the international affairs in order to gain domestic legitimacy and protection against the Soviet control. Ceauşescu’s regime developed an entire concept on the future of Europe, based on the economical cooperation and respect for sovereignty, with the intention to gain support for its major political goals. This study examines Ceauşescu’s concept of Europe and the way he used the non-alignment rhetoric to justify its purposes. “Europe” is an ideological instrument which served for asserting international independence and for granting easy access to technological and financial gateways towards development.
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Hanna Smith, ed. Russia and its Foreign Policy. Influences, Interests and Issues (Kikimora Publications: Helsinki, 2006), 255 pp.


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 123-127
No. of Pages: 5
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: REVIEW: Hanna Smith is a research fellow at the Aleksanteri Institute of the University of Helsinki, Finland, specialized on Russian foreign policy after 1991. She is currently working on a PhD. thesis about Russia’s relations with the international organizations during the Chechen wars. In this volume published by the Kikimora Publications, Hanna Smith gathers a great number of specialists on Russian policy analyzing the present trends and orientations in the Russian foreign policy and investigating with great insight the causes and factors that act upon the process of foreign policy making in the Russian Federation nowadays.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Totalitarian Socialism and its Developmental Tasks in Romania (1948-1956)


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 17-32
No. of Pages: 16
Keywords: , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The Communist regime embarked itself into a vast program of industrialization and development which reflects the principles of economic nationalism, as explained by Helga Schultz. The pursuit of economic and industrial development had been a constant political feature in Romania, after the foundation of the modern nation-state. Taking advantage of the authoritarian instruments available to it, the Communist regime continued this policy of state-led development. In its relations with other Socialist countries, Romania was guided by this project, as much as the political circumstances of the Soviet domination allowed it.
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Alfred W. Crosby, Ecological Imperialism. The Biological Expansion of Europe, 900-1900 (Cambridge-New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004)


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 139-141
No. of Pages: 3
Keywords: , ,
Summary/Abstract: REVIEW. Alfred Crosby’s work investigates the biological origins and causes of European supremacy over the rest of the world. His book represents an insightful overlook through history, revealing the sources of European domination from a biological and ecologica
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Cristina Bucur, The weight of historical patterns,collective memory and historical legacies over the evolution of the Romanian democratization process


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 127-130
No. of Pages: 4
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: REVIEW. The subject approached by author Cristina Bucur is as fascinating, as it is anfractuous. The overthrow of the Communist regime in Romania in December 1989 had raised a countless number of questions regarding the existence or non-existence of democratic traditions in Romania, about the anti-Communist or anti-Ceausist character of the December 89 events. Especially historians had indulged in apologetic assessments of the interwar period, as the flow of scientific and memorialistic literature about the establishment of Communism grew stronger. Descriptions of Soviet abuses, of the Romanian gulag and the inhumane experiences it hosted made the interwar period seem to the public opinion as a “Golden Age” of democracy and prosperity. The intense Communist critique of the interwar “bourgeois” political system from Marxist-Leninist positions, for so many decades, made it look “unfashionable” to speak about the inherent weaknesses of the political regime in Romania. There were also radical voices that strongly condemned every past evolution, either hoping to start all over again or to just leave everything behind, abandoning all hopes in a process of democratic construction in Romania. There were, nonetheless, authors who – starting from profound scientific insight – tried to find explanations for the present evolutions and for the difficulties encountered in democratization, like Tom Gallagher or Florin Abraham. Cristina Bucur’s work comes as an analytic extension of such preoccupations, focusing mainly on historical patterns.
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Sheila Miyoshi Jager, Rana Mitter, Ruptured histories: war, memory, and the post-Cold War in Asia (Harvard University Press, 2007)


Language: English
Subject(s): Review
Page Range: 183-187
No. of Pages: 5
Keywords: , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The volume edited by Jager and Mitter is one of the most fascinating books one may have the chance to find in book stores these days, especially due to the topic approached, topic that concerns both an academic area of Cold War studies usually less investigated and also a geographical area of the world not usually associated with Cold War thinking. This most interesting collection of essays focuses on the social implications of the Cold War and gathers a large group of researchers from various cultural and scientific backgrounds and of various nationalities, as well.
Open access on CEEOL: YES



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Romania’s policy in the Middle East (1950-1970). Challenges and opportunities


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 73-94
No. of Pages: 22
Keywords: , , , , ,
Summary/Abstract: Could small states rise against the superpowers of the Cold War in order to promote their own interests in world affairs? This was the basic premise for this study and it argues that, in the period of reference, Romania could and did develop an independent policy in the Middle East, different from that of the Communist bloc. In spite similarities, Romania’s policy pursued its own economic and political interests, aimed at identifying alternative sources of raw materials and markets, in order to reduce its vulnerability in front of Moscow. The basic aim was to be acknowledged as an independent partner. Relying on Romanian Communist Party sources, declassified in the recent years, this study reveals that this policy was successful and its goals were reached.
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M. Mark Stolarik, ed., The Prague Spring and the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia, 1968: forty years later


Language: English
Subject(s): Review
Page Range: 211-214
No. of Pages: 4
Keywords: , ,
Summary/Abstract: The volume gathers the papers presented during the international conference “The Prague Spring and the Warsaw Pact Invasion of Czechoslovakia”, organized in October 2008 by the University of Ottawa. Its most important contribution to the academic literature on the Prague Spring comes from the authors themselves. The editor, M. Mark Stolarik, points that out in the “Introduction”: most authors are natives of Central and East European countries and based their papers on access to recently declassified archives in their countries. M. Mark Stolarik is Chair in Slovak History and Culture at the Faculty of Arts, University of Ottawa, and was the initiator of the above-mentioned conference. The volume reassess the causes and outcomes of the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia, the internal decision-making process and the factors acting upon it and also draws interesting conclusions in light of new archival evidence.
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National Controversies beneath Stalinist Uniformity. The Issue of Transylvania in the Romanian-Hungarian Communist Debates


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 53-66
No. of Pages: 14
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: The following document will describe relevant aspects regarding the relations among “peoples’ democracies” during the Stalinist period (1948-1953). Although their degree of autonomy was severely reduced due to Soviet pressures, certain enmities did persist, in spite of the so-called “uniformity”. The traditional Romanian-Hungarian conflict over Transylvania resurfaced after 1947. The Communist regimes in power continued the rivalry over this territory, bringing new arguments which were in accordance with the political environment. The Hungarians used internationalist arguments in order to justify their interest in the situation of the Hungarian minority in Romania. On the other hand, the Romanian communists used the anti-cosmopolitan rhetoric of the time in order to reject any interference from Budapest.
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Russian-East European Relations: from Tsarism to Gazprom. Conference in Cork, Ireland, May 2012


Language: English
Subject(s): Review
Page Range: 129-130
No. of Pages: 2
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: Relations between Russia and its East European neighbors had always been a complex issue, in which media and policy-makers usually express a wide variety of opinions ranging from appeals for friendship and cooperation to warnings of domination and security threats. Recently, these relations have been subjected to a constructive academic debate in the Irish city of Cork, during an international conference organized by the Irish Association for Russian, Central and East European Studies and University College of Cork. The conference brought together both young researchers and senior scholars from numerous countries, especially from Central and East European institutions, and debates focused on Russia’s policies in this regions of Europe, especially in the 20th century and after. A solid input of historical background from different case studies provided for an in-depth analysis on the issues debated.
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East-West Cultural Exchanges and the Cold War. Conference in Jyväskylä, Finland, June 2012


Language: English
Subject(s): Review
Page Range: 131-132
No. of Pages: 2
Keywords: , ,
Summary/Abstract: Although the Cold War had been the subject of intense debates and researches in the past decades, there are still research areas which did not receive sufficient attention. Beyond the level of high politics, the Cold War affected the lives of millions, caused social changes, with dramatic consequences sometimes, and generated new currents and forms of manifestation in the field of culture. Such evolutions have only been subjected to in-depth analysis in the last years, emerging as a new and fascinating field of research worldwide. In June 2012, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, organized an international conference, aiming to explore other less known aspects of the Cold War, respectively culture. The organizers envisaged a multi-disciplinary conference, bringing together research connected with cultural exchanges in the Cold War era, both from the East and from the West, encouraging theoretical discussion at the same time, about potential definitions of the cultural Cold War and the validity of the concept itself. Participants from more than 20 countries and academic institutions answered to this call, turning the event in Jyväskylä into one of the most successful conferences organized in Nordic Europe this year.
Open access on CEEOL: NO



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Ilarion Ţiu, Istoria mişcării legionare 1944-1968


Language: English
Subject(s): Review
Page Range: 227-230
No. of Pages: 4
Keywords: , , ,
Summary/Abstract: Ilarion Ţiu’s book is composed of four chapters, each dealing with a separate phase in the evolution of the Legion, from a chronological perspective. The first chapter deals with the end of World War 2 (1944-1945) and the efforts undertaken by the movement to obtain a better position on the Romanian political scene, which was already being restructured after six years of dictatorship. The “Legionnaires” tried to organize a government in exile, but also to react to the power gained by the Communist party. The extreme-rightists attempted a political coalition with the National Peasants Party but failed (pp. 75). As political purges and arrests were already being initiated by the government, the “Legionnaires” announced publicly that they shall remain inactive, so as to avoid persecutions. In December 1945, the Ministry of Interior agreed to sign a convention with the Legion, according to which the “Legionnaires” would surrender their arms and renounce any disruptive activities and in exchange the Ministry offered assurances that those members who comply would not be persecuted (pp. 90-91). Ana Pauker, one of the most prominent members of the Politburo, advocated in favor of accepting “Legionnaires” in the Communist party, as a form of neutralization and control.
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Emanuel Copilaş, The Genesis of Romantic Leninism. A theoretical perspective on the international orientation of Romanian Communism, 1948-1989


Language: English
Subject(s): Review
Page Range: 243-245
No. of Pages: 3
Keywords: , ,
Summary/Abstract: “The Genesis of Romantic Leninism” represents Emanuel Copilaş’s doctoral thesis, defended recently under the scientific guidance of Professor Michael Shafir. Emanuel Copilaş is assistant professor at the Department of Political Science within the Faculty of Political Science, Philosophy and Communication Sciences, West University of Timişoara and published numerous studies and articles in academic journals at home and abroad.
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Paul Nistor, Propagandă și politică externă românească în secolul XX [Romanian propaganda and foreign policy in the 20th century], Institutul European, Iași, 353 pp.,


Language: English
Subject(s): History
Page Range: 91-93
No. of Pages: 3
Keywords:
Summary/Abstract:
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Emanuel Copilaş, Naţiunea socialistă. Politica identităţii în Epoca de Aur [The Socialist Nation. The Politics of Identity in the Golden Era], Polirom, Iaşi, 2015, 334 pp.


Language: English
Subject(s): Review
Page Range: 162-164
No. of Pages: 11
Keywords:
Summary/Abstract:
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